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Sociology: The Essentials (7th ed.) Chapter 7
Terms in this set (48)
behavior that is recognized as violating expected rules and norms
Four defining characteristics of deviance
emerges in a social context; what is defiant to one group may not be to another; established rules and norms are socially (not individually) created; deviance lies not just in behavior itself but in the social responses of groups to that behavior
behavior that breaks laws or official rules
behavior that violates customary norms
functionalist, believe deviance was necessary to society, it produces social solidarity
Medicalization of Deviance
explanations of deviant behavior that interpret deviance as the result of individual pathology or sickness
Functionalists on Deviance
it's functional because it creates social cohesion; it results from structural strains in society; it occurs when people's attachment to social bonds is diminished
Symbolic Interactionists on Deviance
it's a learned behavior, reinforced through group membership; it results from the process of social labeling, regardless of the actual commission of deviance; those with the power to assign deviant labels themselves produce deviance
Conflict Theorists on Deviance
dominant classes control the definition of and sanctions attached to deviance; it results from social inequality in society; elite deviance and corporate deviance go largely unrecognized and unpunished
the condition that exists when social regulations in a society break down
when the disintegrating forces in the society make individuals feel lost or alone
when there is excessive regulation of individuals by social forces
when people feel totally detached from society
created the structural strain theory, noted that society is characterized by both culture and social structure. Culture establishes goals. Social structure (may or may not) provide the means to achieve these goals.
Structural Strain Theory
deviance originates when there is tension between cultural goals and the means people have available to achieve those goals
when neither the goals nor the means are available (ie. severe alcoholics, homeless person)
when the goals are not accepted or unattainable, but the means to get them are (ie. eating disorders)
when new goals are substituted for more traditional ones, and new means are undertaken to replace older ones (ie. extremist groups, KKK)
Social Control Theory
developed by Travis Hirchi (funtionalist), suggests that deviance occurs when a person's (or group's) attachment to social bonds is weakened.
committed within the legitimate context of doing business
the wrongdoing of wealthy and powerful individuals and organizations
the process by which groups and individuals within those groups are brought into conformity with dominant social expectations
Social Control Agents
those who regulate and administer the response to deviance
W I Thomas (Chicago School)
explained deviance as a normal response to the social conditions in which people find themselves
Differential Association Theory
a type of symbolic interaction theory, interprets deviance as behavior one learns through interaction with others
a branch of symbolic interaction theory, interprets the responses of others as the most significant factor in understanding how deviant behavior is both created and sustained, shows how those with the power to label an act or a person deviant and to impose sanctions wield great power
the assignment or attachment of a deviant identity to a person by others, including by agents of social institutions
when criminals, once freed, return to criminal activities
the definition a person has of himself or herself as a deviant.
the sequence of movements people make through a particular subculture of deviance
groups organized around particular forms of social deviance
an attribute that is socially devalued and discredited.
behavior that violates particular criminal laws.
the study of crime from a scientific perspective.
the FBI's tallying of violent crimes of murder, manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault, plus property crimes
are violent or nonviolent crimes directed against people. ie. murder, aggravated assault, forcible rape, and robbery
refer to assaults and other malicious acts (including crimes against property) motivated by various forms of social bias, including that based on race, religion, sexual orientation, ethnic/national origin, or disability.
involve theft of property without threat of bodily harm. These include burglary (breaking and entering), larceny (the unlawful taking of property, but without unlawful entry), auto theft, and arson
violate laws but are not listed in the FBI's serious crime index. These include illicit activities, such as gambling, illegal drug use, and prostitution, in which there is no complainant
con game whereby a central person collects money from a large number of people, including friends and relatives, and then promises to invest their dollars with a high rate of interest for them
crime committed by structured groups typically involving the provision of illegal goods and services to others.
Corporate crime and deviance
wrongdoing that occurs within the context of a formal organization or bureaucracy and is actually sanctioned by the norms and operating principles of the bureaucracy
(on the part of a police officer) the use of race alone as the criterion for deciding whether to stop and detain someone on suspicion of his having committed a crime.
the form of terrorism involving the dispersion of chemical or biological substances intended to cause widespread disease and death
the use of the computer to commit one or more terrorist acts.
suicide as a result of severe oppression or control over one's fate (ie. slave suicide)
deviant behavior is not recognized and the supposed deviant person doesn't believe they're committing deviant behavior
deviant behavior is recognized and the supposed deviant person is aware of their deviant behavior
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Sociology: The Essentials (7th. ed) Chapter 8
Sociology: The Essentials (7th ed.) Chapter 9
Sociology: The Essentials (7th ed.) Chapter 6
Sociology: The Essential (7th ed.) Chapter 10
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