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a force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together, thereby decreasing surface area to the smallest possible size
equilibrium vapor pressure
pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium; with its corresponding liquid at a given temperature
a graph of pressure versus temperature that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist
indicates the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid and vapor of the substance can coexist at equilibrium
properties of water
boils at 100 degress Celsius, low density, floats, polar compound with bent shape, high molar heat of fusion, high molar heat of vaporization, expands when freezes
properties that depend on the concentration of solute particles but not on their identity
equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules
pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature if the volume is kept constant P1/T1=P2/T2
Dalton's law of partial pressure
in the absence of a chemical reaction the pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the individual pressures of each gas alone Ptotal=P1+P2+P3+...
ideal gas law
PV=nRT where P is pressure, V is volume, n is the # of moles, R is the constant, and T is the temperature
M=mRT/PV where M is the molar mass, m is the mass of gas, R is the constant, T is the temperature, P is the pressure, and V is the volume
D=MP/RT where D is the density, M is the molar mass, P is the pressure, R is the constant, and T is the temperature
acids produce higher concentration of H+ or H3O+; bases produce higher concentration of OH-
the point at which the two solutions used in a titration are present in chemically equivalent amounts
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