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51 terms

Chemistry Final

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surface tension
a force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together, thereby decreasing surface area to the smallest possible size
equilibrium
dynamic condition in which two opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system
condensation
the process by which a gas changes to a liquid
equilibrium vapor pressure
pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium; with its corresponding liquid at a given temperature
volatile
liquids that evaporated readily
sublimation
change of state from a solid directly to a gas
deposition
change of state from a gas directly to a solid
phase diagram
a graph of pressure versus temperature that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist
triple point
indicates the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid and vapor of the substance can coexist at equilibrium
properties of water
boils at 100 degress Celsius, low density, floats, polar compound with bent shape, high molar heat of fusion, high molar heat of vaporization, expands when freezes
solute
substance dissolved in a solution
solvent
dissolving medium in a solution
solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase
saturation
the amount of dissolved solute
dissociation
separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves
colligative properties
properties that depend on the concentration of solute particles but not on their identity
molarity
the number of moles of solute in one liter of solution
molality
the concentration of a solution expressed in moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
weak electrolyte
any compound whose dilute aqueous solutions conduct electricity poorly
strong electrolyte
any compound whose dilute aqueous solutions conduct electricity well
concentrated
relatively large amount of solute in a solvent
diluted
relatively small amount of solute in a solvent
Avogadro's Law
equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
particles of matter are always in motion
Boyle's Law
relates pressure and volume of a gas V1P1=V2P2
Charles's Law
relates the temperature and volume of a gas V1/T1=V2/T2
Gay-Lussac's Law
pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature if the volume is kept constant P1/T1=P2/T2
combined gas law
P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2
Dalton's law of partial pressure
in the absence of a chemical reaction the pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the individual pressures of each gas alone Ptotal=P1+P2+P3+...
partial pressure
pressure of each gas in a mixture
diffusion
spontaneous mixing of particles of two substances (gases) cased by their random motion
effusion
process by which gases pass thorugh a tiny opening
barometer
measures pressure
measure of pressure
torr, kPa, atm
standard molar volume of a gas
volume occupied by one mole of a gas at STP
ideal gas law
PV=nRT where P is pressure, V is volume, n is the # of moles, R is the constant, and T is the temperature
R
ideal gas constant
Molar mass
M=mRT/PV where M is the molar mass, m is the mass of gas, R is the constant, T is the temperature, P is the pressure, and V is the volume
Density
D=MP/RT where D is the density, M is the molar mass, P is the pressure, R is the constant, and T is the temperature
Arrhenius
acids produce higher concentration of H+ or H3O+; bases produce higher concentration of OH-
Bronsted-Lowry
acids donate proton; bases accept proton
amphoteric
any species that can react as either an acid or base
acid
compounds with H+ or H3O+ ions
base
compounds with OH- ions
conjugate acid
species that is formed with a base gains a proton
conjugate base
species that is formed with an acid loses a proton
monoprotic
donates one proton
polyprotic
donates more than one proton
endpoint
the point in a titration at which an indicator changes color
equivalence point
the point at which the two solutions used in a titration are present in chemically equivalent amounts
Lewis
acids accept electron pair and bases donate election pair