Music 27 study
Terms in this set (48)
In Baroque era, it was the technique of writing polyphonic music. Multiple lines being played simultaneously. Used in fugues.
Similar to counterpoint
usually three or four instruments or voices
built on single principle theme, called the subject
Begins with exposition
the fugue's main theme
is generic, yet melodically distinctive to make it memorable.
1) the first section of a fugue
not related to sonata's exposition.
The passages of music separating the later subject entries.
They provide contrast to the subject entries.
In fugues, after the exposition, the pattern: Episode, then subject entry, then episode, then subject entry, then longer episode, then subject entry.
concerto and concerto grosso
Contrast between an orchestra and a soloist (or small group of soloists in concerto grosso).
"contest" between orchestra and soloist
Baroque and Classical eras
latin for "to contend"
indicating the contest between solo and orchestra
form focuses on contrast between two musical ideas, or groups of ideas--one belonging to orchestra and other to the soloist or group of soloists
Returns in whole or in part and in different keys throughout the movement.
Ritornello and solo constantly alternate
the whole orchestra rather than just the soloist(s)
a self-contained section of a larger piece, such as a symphony or concerto grosso.
movements in a multi-movement work show variety in tempo, meter, key, mood, and form.
An improvised or improvisatory solo passage within a larger piece.
Featured in concertos of all eras.
biggest cadenzas come at end of first movements
e.g. brandenburg no. 5
da capo (de capo Aria)
solo singer accompanied by orchestra
high pitched voices, sometimes castrati
Julius Caeser - Handel
in opera, fast brilliant runs, scales, high notes, cadenzas
technique for its own sake
Principle type of Italian Baroque opera.
Plots were serious
Plots derived from ancient history
Mainly solo singing from sopranos and mezzosopranos, including castrati
Italian word "recite"
singing words in a heightened, theatrical manner
with instrumental accompaniment
In a free-rhthym emotional manner, exaggerating
Almost no repetition of words
For solo singer; accompanied by orchestra
Repetition of words is common
Words let out at singer's leisure
More musically elaborate than recitative
More melodic than recitative
Baroque Italian Aria form is "da capo" (ABA)
Recitative accompaniment kept to minimum
Usually just a harpsichord
Plot depends on clear understanding of words
from Italian meaning "dry"
In opera seria
some exciting scenes have orchestral accompaniment
a large, impressive concert piece for orchestra
Several movements that contrast in
1st movement: Sonata form, fast or moderate tempo
2nd movement: slow tempo, quiet mood
3rd movement: dance rhythms; minuet and trio
4th movement: fast again, sonata or rondo form
Very popular in classical era
first movement of a symphony is most often in sonata form; the emotional and intellectual core of the whole work
Sonata form very flexible with expressions: could be forceful, brilliant, pathetic, sad, etc..
Large-scale ABA form
Exposition, development and recapitulation
exposition (sonata form)
The (A) of the sonata form
Main theme (established by repitition)
second group (new themes, contrasting in themes and key from first)
Cadence theme (loud)
development (sonata form)
heightens tension set up by contrasting themes and keys of exposition.
Themes are developed by being broken up, recombined, extended (many times by using counterpoint)
Counterpoint to create sense of turmoil
retransition (return to first key)
Recapitulation (sonata form)
Back to A
Everything returns to normal order
returns to tonic key
OPTIONAL CODA (development and recapitulation may be repeated.)
One or two instruments only
private performances, often by ameuters
Less uniform than symphonies, quartets, etc..
1st- Sonata form, fast/moderate tempo
2nd - sonata form, slow/very slow tempo
3rd - rondo form, fast/very fast
sections. Different in key but maintain same rhythm, duration, tone.
Baroque dance form
Classical dance form
A-B-A (minuet and trio)
Last section repeats the first
Italian comic opera.
- serious opera
Popular in Vienna during Haydn and Mozart's time
rapid succession of rhythmic patterns in which each syllable of text corresponds to one note
Common in Opera Buffa
Usually sung by baritone or bass
Marriage of Figaro
Barber of Seville
musical style included as a movement within larger piece of music starting in the Baroque period (esp. in Arias)
slow 6/8 or 12/8 time
lilting rhythms making it somewhat resemble a slow jig
usually in a minor key.
"natural man" is born good but corrupted by civilization
believed music was "natural"- more basic/archaic than speech
Attacked aristrocratic music of Late Baroque Era
Believed opera should portray real people, close to nature
Thanks to Rousseau, opera buffa (comic opera) became more common.
Lorenzo da Ponte
wrote the librettos for 28 operas by 11 composers, including three of Mozart's greatest operas, Don Giovanni, The Marriage of Figaro and Così fan tutte.
Libretto: text used in operas.
A reinventing passage; returns in whole or in part and in different keys throughout movement.
The first or final movement of a concerto or concerto grosso, or aria,
Baroque for orchestra or chorus
Ritornello and solos constantly alternate.
Bach's Brandenburg Concerto no. 5
Vivaldi's Violin Concerto in G
CLUES to recognize: Contrast between an orchestra and solo instrument playing, features virtuosity.
ABACA (always returning to A)
Piano, string instruments
Haydn 4th movement of symhony 95
CLUES to recognize: Repition of A. Very musically decorated. Not as elaborate as ritornello. NO SOLOS.
Sometimes follows a Prelude (prelude and fugue)
Piano, voices, harpsichord
Late Baroque, exhausting the possibility of thematic materials.
Bach Prelude and Fugue in C major -Book 1
CUES: Exposition. Listen for imitative polyphony.
Classical symphony or sonata
1-2 solo instruments (for sonata genre); orchestra (for symphony)
A= Exposition B=Development A=Recapitulation (then Coda)
Key doesn't change at any time during the piece.
Da Capo Aria
LONE opera singer accompanied by ORCHESTRA
HIGH PITCHED voices (somtimes castrati)
MELODIC vocal part
Much more coherent and musically elaborate than recitative.
A B A' (prime → ornamentation of the vocals
Vivaldi Violin Concerto in G - First Movement
Vivaldi Violin Concerto in G - Second Movement
Variation (ground bass)
Bach Brandenburg Concerto no. 5, first movement
Mozart Symphony no. 40 in G minor, first movement
Haydn Symphony no. 95, first movement
Haydn Symphony no. 95, second movement
Haydn Symphony no. 95, third movement
Minuet and Trio (ABA)
Strong downbeat, moderate tempo.
In ternary form (ABA)
Slower tempo indicates start of the trio
Return to minuet indicated by return to A as well as tempo increase.
Haydn Symphony no. 95, fourth movement
Handel, 'La giustizia' from Julius Caesar
Da Capo Aria
Handel, 'There were Shepherds', 'Glory to God', from Messiah
Mozart, 'Là ci darem la mano', ('You'll give me your hand') from Don Giovanni