Case Studies

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Terms in this set (...)

Overpopulation
Nigeria
OP: three facts
- Takes up only 3% of Africa's area, but 15% of population live there
- 2013 population 175 million
- 60% live on $1 a day or less
OP: Negative effects
- Pressure on resources
- High pollution
- Lack of facilities, supplies (medical, education, housing, food, water)
- Increased risk of disease
- Inadequate sanitation
- Lack of employment
- Poverty
- Congested roads
- High crime rate
Underpopulation
Australia
UP: three facts
- Almost same area as USA, population difference of 275 million
- Area 7 million km2, population 25 million (2013)
- Population density 3.2 people/km2
UP: What does this mean?
Australia has a lot of free land, and more resources that could support a higher population
UP: How do we reduce underpopulation here?
- Expand economy to create more job opportunities
- Relax visa rules to promote immigration
- Benefits for multi-child families
UP: Effects
- Undersupply of workers
- Aging population
- Lowered living standard (lack of workers)
- Underutilized resources
UP: Effects of overcoming it
- Put pressure on the water supply
- Congestion in major cities
- Raised pollution
- Language barrier
- Social issues (higher crime rate)
High rate of natural population growth
Niger
HNG: 4 facts
- Total population 16.9 million (2013), growth rate 3.4%
- Only 5% use contraceptives/family planning
- Average no. of children per mother is 7.1, many want more
- Birth rate 46.8/1000 people, death rate 13.1/1000
HNG: Causes
- Lack of family planning/contraceptives
- Women uneducated
- Children desirable (religion/status/tradition/to work)
- Medicine development, lower infant mortality
HNG: Government plans to reduce rate of growth
- Increase family planning (5-20% increase 2015)
- Information campaigns
- Educate religious leaders
- Cut down early marriages to reduce reproductive life by 4 years
Low rate of natural population growth/population decline & country with a high dependent population
Japan
LNG/HDP: four facts
- 70% of women give up their careers after giving birth
- 1.2 births per woman

- 33% of population over 60 years old
- Highest life expectancy in the world, 85 years
LNG/HDP: Reasons
- Recession makes it increasingly expensive to give birth
- Forced to choose between family and career
- Raised pressure on men to have babies
- Increased accesability of contraceptives
- Less people going on dates
- Men getting 'virtual girlfriends' or playing video games

- Baby boom in 1970s
- Highest life expectancy (85)
LNG/HDP: Consequences
- Low birth rate
- Schools closing down
- Workforce falling by 15%
- High ageing population to support, so higher tax, expense
- Older retirement age
LNG/HDP: Solutions
- Government investing 3 million yen for marriage consultations and matchmaking events
- More relaxed immigration laws
- Increased tax to 10%
Migration
Syria to Germany, 2014~
M: three facts
- By 2016, Germany had welcomed 800,000+ migrants
- Syria is in the Middle East (Asia)
- Migrants must cross 2000 miles, 9 borders
M: Push factors
Syrian civil war (2011~):
- 200,000 + deaths
- Neighbouring countries rebelling
- Islamic state group took over
- Violence
- Destruction of homes
- Closing down of schools/services
M: Pull factors
- Right to move around EU
- Children can attend school
- Can learn a new language
- Free housing/schooling
- Good job prospects
- Strong economy
- Safety
M: Host country impacts
- Overcrowded refugee camps
- Too many can put strain on environment, pollution
- Increased congestion
- Language barrier
- Increased tax
- Competing with locals for jobs
- Ageing population is a high cost already
M: Home country impacts
- Weakened economy
- Depleted workforce
- 4 million+ left behind
- Government trying to keep people via chemical weapons
Densely populated region/country
Japan
DP: three facts
- 350+ people/km2
- Population 127 million
- Highly nucleated settlements in major cities e.g Tokyo, Osaka
DP: Reasons: Low density rural
- 2/3 is mountainous (high altitude, steep), e.g central Honshu
- Difficult to grow crops
- Thin/acidic/infertile soil
- Isolated
- Poor communcation and access
- Few work prospects
- Extreme climate
- Few resources
DP: Reasons: High density rural
- Flat vallets eg Gifu
- Flat land and fertile soil ideal for farming
- Warm temperature good for crops
- Good roads and railways
DP: Reasons: High density urban
- Cities eg Honshu Coast, Tokyo, Osaka
- Easy to build on/develop (flat)
- Many ports and harbours
- Fishing
- Import/export is high for businesses