Edexcel IGCSE Biology Revision
Keywords and definitions for Triple award IGCSE Science (only Biology)
When a substance moves against/up a concentration gradient, from a region where they are of lower concentration to a region where they are of higher concentration.
Any characteristic of an organism that improves its chances of surviving in its environment.
Respiration with oxygen.
Respiration without oxygen. It releases less energy than aerobic respiration.
Different forms of a gene which occupy the same relative positions on a pair of homologous chromosomes.
Blood vessels which carry blood away from the heart.
Drugs that make the body unable to feel pain.
A method used by humans to produce plants and animals with desired qualities.
When organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring.
The process resulting in the production of genetically identical offspring from one parent, without the fusion of gametes.
The process whereby some of the absorbed food materials are converted into new protoplasm or used to provide energy.
The process that brings about an exchange of gases between an organism and its environment.
The inhalation and exhalation of air.
The inhalation and exhalation of air.
Microscopic thin-walled blood vessels which carry blood from a small artery (arteriole) to a small vein (venule).
A condition where both alleles express themselves in a hybrid, as they are both either dominant or recessive to one another.
The process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific function.
The process by which large food molecules are broken down into small, soluble and diffusible molecules that can be absorbed by the body cells.
Cells that contain the full number of chromosomes.
Cells that contain half the number of chromosomes as a diploid cell.
A form of a gene that is expressed and masks the recessive gene. It gives the same phenotype in both homozygous and heterozygous conditions as it expresses itself.
An ecological system formed by the interaction of living organisms and their non-living environments.
The removal of undigested matter from the body.
Biological catalysts made of protein.
The process by which metabolic waste products and toxic materials are removed from the body of an organism.
The process by which the male gamete fuses with the female gamete to form a zygote.
A series of organisms through which energy is transferred in the form of food.
Two or more food chains interlinked together.
A reproductive cell containing the haploid number of chromosomes.
Something controls a particular characteristic and codes for a specific protein.
A technique used to transfer genes from one organism to another.
The combination of genes in an individual.
A cell, tissue or an organ that secretes chemical substances.
The place where an organism lives.
Having different alleles for a particular trait.
Chromosomes which have the same genes, shape and length.
Having identical alleles for a particular trait.
A form of cell division that produces haploid cells.
A form of cell division that produces diploid cells.
The sudden or spontaneous change in gene structure or a chromosome, or even the chromosome number, and may be inheritable.
The intake of food and the processes that convert food substances into living matter.
The net movement of water molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration, through a partially permeable membrane. (down a concentration gradient)
The amount of oxygen required to oxidize the lactic acid produced in muscles during anaerobic respiration and convert it into harmless substances.
Partially permeable membrane
A membrane that allows selected substances to pass through.
The wave-like contractions of the walls of the gut.
The physically expressed characteristics of an individual, e.g. height and eye colour.
The process in which light energy absorbed by chlorophyll is transformed into chemical energy.
The transfer of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma.
A form of a gene that expresses itself usually only in the homozygous condition.
The transfer of pollen grains from the anther the stigma of the same flower or of a different flower on the same plant.
The process involving the fusion of two gametes to form a zygote, resulting in the production of genetically dissimilar offspring.
A group of similar organisms. Organisms within a species can breed.
A group of similar cells which work together to perform a specific function.
The loss of water vapour from aerial parts of a plant, especially through the stomata of the leaves.
The differences that can be observed within a species.
Blood vessels which carry blood towards the heart.
All multicellular animals.
All green plants.
Moulds, mushrooms, yeast.
Bacteria, blue-green algae.
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