31 terms

Chapter 20 - AP Environmental Science (Friedland)

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Terms in this set (...)

Well-being
The status of being happy, healthy, and prosperous.
Economics
The study of how humans allocate scarce resources in the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Genuine progress indicator (GPI)
A measurement of economic status that includes personal consumption, income distribution, levels of higher education, resource depletion, pollution, and the health of the population.
Technology transfer
The phenomenon of less developed countries adopting technological innovations developed in wealthy countries.
Leapfrogging
The phenomenon of less developed countries using new technology without first using the precursor technology.
Natural capital
The resources of the planet, such as air, water, and minerals.
Human capital
Human knowledge and abilities.
Manufactured capital
All goods and services that humans produce.
Market failure
When the economic system does not account for all costs.
Environmental economics
A subfield of economics that examines that costs and benefits of various policies and regulations that seek to regulate or limit air and water pollution and other causes of environmental degradation.
Ecological economics
The study of economics as a component of ecological systems.
Valuation
The practice of assigning monetary value to intangible benefits and natural capital.
Environmental worldview
A worldview that encompasses how one thinks the world works; how one views one's role in the world; and what on believes to be proper environmental behavior.
Anthropocentric worldview
A worldview that focuses on human welfare and well-being.
Stewardship
The careful and responsible management and care for Earth and its resources.
Biocentric worldview
A worldview that holds that humans are just one of many species on Earth, all of which have equal intrinsic value.
Ecocentric worldview
A worldview that places equal value on all living organisms and the ecosystems in which they live.
United Nations (UN)
A global institution dedicated to promoting dialogue among contries with the goal of maintaing world peace.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
A program of the United Nations responsible for gathering environmental information, conducting research, and assessing environmental problems.
World Bank
A global institution that provides technical and financial assistance to developing countries with the objectives of reducing poverty and promoting growth, especially in the poorest countries.
World Health Organization (WHO)
A global institution dedicated to the improvement of human health by monitoring and assessing health trends by providing medical advice to countries.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
An international program that works in 166 countries around the world to advocate change that will help people obtain a better life through development.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
The U.S. organization that oversees all governmental efforts related to the environment, including science, research, assessment, and education.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
An agency of the U.S. Department of Labor, responsible for the enforement of health and safety regulations.
Department of Energy (DOE)
The U.S. organization that advances the energy and economic security of the United States.
Human development index (HDI)
A measuremnet index that combines three basic measures of human status; life expectancy; knowledge and education.
Human poverty index (HPI)
A measurement index deveolped by the United Nations to investigate the proportion of a population suffering from deprivation in a coutry with a high HDI.
Command-and-control approach
A strategy for pollution control that involves regulations and enforcement mechanisms.
Incentive-based approach
A strategy for pollution control that constructs financial and other incentives for lowering emissions based on profits and benefits.
Green tax
A tax placed on environmentally harmful activities or emissions in an attempt to internalized some of the externalities that may be involved in the life cycle of those activities or products.
Triple bottom line
An approach to sustainability that considers three factors - economic, environmental, and social - when making decisions about business, the economy, and developement.
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