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Psych: Chapter 14
Terms in this set (66)
Knowledge and understanding concerning the social world and the people in it (including oneself)
Organized set of beliefs and expectations based on past experiences that is presumed to apply to all members of that category.
The fact that early info about someone weighs more heavily than later info in influencing one's impression of that person.
The process in which a person's expectations about another elicits behavior from the second person that confirms the expectation.
How teacher expectations can take the form of a self-fulfilling prophecy and can influence student performance in the classroom.
A set of characteristics presumed to be shared by all members of a social category.
The theory that addresses the question of how people make judgements about the causes of behavior.
What did Fritz heider argue?
The we attribute behavior to either internal or external causes, but not both.
Harold Kelley says we rely n 3 kinds of info about behavior. What are they?
Fundamental Attribution Error?
The tendency of people to overemphasize personal causes for other people's behavior.
Tendency to explain the behavior of others as caused by internal factors, while attributing one's own behavior to external forces.
The tendency to attribute our successes to our own efforts or qualities and our failures to external factors.
Attribution error based on the assumption that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people.
Interpersonal attraction is linked to what factors?
How close two people live to each other.
Quality of genuine closeness to and trust in another person
Intimate communication is based on is based on what?
Process of gradual self-disclosure.
Relatively stable organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavior tendencies directed toward something or someone.
What are the three major components of attitude?
-Evaluative Beliefs about an object
-Feelings about that object
-Behavior tendencies toward that objects
Tendency for an individual to observe the situation for cues about how to react.
An unfair, intolerant, or unfavorable attitude toward a group of people.
An unfair act or series of acts taken toward an entire group of people or individual members of that group.
Ultimate attribution error?
Refers to tendency for a person with stereotyped beliefs about a particular group of people to make internal attributions for their shortcomings and external attributions for their successes.
The theory that, under certain circumstances, people who are frustrated in their goals turn their anger away from the proper, powerful target and toward another, less powerful target that is safer to attack.
A personality pattern characterized by rigid conventionality, exaggerated respect for authority, and hostility toward those who defy society's norms.
Any group of people who feels a sense of solidarity and exclusivity in relation to nonmembers.
Group of people who are outside this boundary and are viewed as competitors, enemies, or different and unworthy of respect.
Members see themselves not just as different, but also as superior to members of out-groups.
Prejudice and discrimination directed at a particular racial group
What are strategies for reducing prejudice and discrimination?
-Improving group contact
What happens in recategorization strategy?
Try to expand our schema of a particular group such as viewing people from different races or genders as sharing similar qualities.
What happens in controlled processing strategy?
Training ourselves to be more mindful of people who differ from us.
What happens in improving group contact strategy?
Bringing groups together.
What is the first step in persuasion?
1) To seize and retain the audience's attention.
What are the second and third steps in persuasion?
3) Accepting Message
Communication model of persuasion spotlights 4 key elements to achieve goals. What are they?
-The message itself
-The medium of communication
-Characteristics of the audience.
Attitudes are most resistant to change if...
1) The audience has strong commitment to its present attitudes?
2) Those attitudes are shared by others
3) The attitudes were instilled during early childhood by a pivotal group such as the family.
Perceived inconsistency between two cognitions.
Cognitive dissonance exists when?
A person has 2 contradictory cognitions, or beliefs, at the same time.
According to festinger, cognitive dissonance does what?
Creates unpleasant psychological tension, which motivates us to try to resolve the dissonance in some way.
The process by which others individually or collectively affect one's perceptions, attitudes, and actions.
Beliefs that most membranes of a society accept as self-evidently true.
Shared idea or expectation about how to behave.
Strategy for perceiving the norms and values of another group.
Voluntarily yielding to social norms, even at the expense of one's preferences.
Change of behavior in response to an explicit request from another person or group.
Once people have granted a small request, they are more likely to comply with a larger one.
1) Induce a person to agree to do something for a comparatively low cost.
2) Raise the cost of compliance
Under certain circumstances, a person who has refused to comply with one request may be more likely to comply with a second.
Change of behavior in response to a command from another person, typically an authority figure.
According to the results of solomon asch's study of conformity, which situational factor is likely to influence conformity among members of a group?
Fear of rejection by the group.
Loss of personal sense of responsibility in a group.
In a group, one dominant and persuasive person can convince people to act through
Helping behavior that is not linked to personal gain.
The tendency for an individual's helpfulness in an emergency to decrease as the number of passive bystanders increases.
What feelings affect our motivation to help?
Greater willingness of a group than an individual to take substantial risks.
Shift in attitudes by members of a group toward more extreme positions than the ones held before group discussion.
Tendency of group members to exert less individual effort on the assumption that others in the group will do the work.
A process that occurs when the members of a group like one another have similar goals and are isolated, leading them to ignore alternatives and not criticize group consensus.
The theory that leadership is a result of personal qualities and traits that qualify one to lead others.
Fiedlier's theory of leadership believes one kind of leader is __________ oriented while other leaders are __________ oriented.
Task oriented leader?
Concerned with doing task well, even at the expense of worsening relationships among group members.
Concerned with maintaing group cohesiveness and harmony.
Sternberg theory of effective leadership stresses certain essential traits necessary for effective leadership. What are they?
Today, many American businesses adopt a management style proven effective in collectivist cultures; this leadership approach utilizes....
Decision-making input from all workers.
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