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Animal Behavior: Predator Avoidance
Terms in this set (11)
a hereditary trait that has spread or is spreading by nat sel and has replaced or is replacing any alternative traits; measured in costs and benefits
3 constraints that make adaptations not perfect
-failure of appropriate mutations to occur
-pleiotropy -one gene has multiple positive and negative effects
-coevolution -the evolution of one spp impacts that fitness of other
the comparative method
comparison of behaviors in related spp can offer clues about both evolutionary history and adaptive value
adaptive value of cooperative defense?
-group defense against predators -ex: mobbing in crows
-could have kin sel happening of crows are related
what's the adaptive value of large conspicuous gatherings or large simultaneous insect emergences?
-dilution effect: risk of predation in large group is much smaller than in a small group (less chance of me being eaten in a group of 1,000 than 100; social anti-predator behavior) -hyp: the % of death by predators in a group will be much less for larger groups than smaller groups
-there are fitness benefits for those who allow other individuals to absorb predation risk
-can be explained by game theory
-social anti-predator behavior
-ex: penguins congregate on edge of ice and wait for 1 to take 1st leap and rest follow, 1st and last penguin have highest risk of predation
-any behavior of prey that makes it difficult for predators to detect prey
-behavioral decisions that affect how crpytic an animal appears: perch sites, nesting sites, movement corridors, movement timing
costs of cryptic behavior
-sacrifice foraging time
any behavior of prey that makes it easy for predators to detect prey
why would some animals make themselves conspicuous to predators?
-Ex: springboks "stot," tail of white-tailed deer
-get a group to assemble
-advertise strength to predators
*Syracuse is well known as a mass multi-species flocking site for blackbird spp. In these flocks, individuals on the periphery experience higher predation than those in the interior. Using the terms "cost" and "benefit," please provide one adaptive value explanation for why a blackbird would remain on the periphery of a flock.
Though they face the cost of higher predation, birds on the exterior can benefit by having first choice/look at the best food in the area -the cost of predation must still be lower than the benefit of remaining on the periphery
*Make sure to state what specific resource they have access to
-can also do dilution effect, many eyes hyp
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