86 terms

IB Language and Literature - Vocabulary

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PLAY
Language
a system of communication that is mutually intelligible among all members of a society
Culture
the values, goals, convictions, and attitudes that people share in a society
Dialect
a variety of a language that is unique in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary
Colloquialism
linguistic features associate with informal situations
Slang
informal usage in vocabulary and idiom
Jargon
the vocabulary peculiar to a particular profession or group
Argot
a specialized vocabulary particular to a class or group, especially one devised for private communication
Code-switching
the practice of alternating between two or more languages or varieties of language in private conversation
Taboo
prescribed by society as improper or unacceptable
Pidgin
an improvised language - stripped of grammar that is invented in order for people to communicate with each other
Creole
a language that is adapted by new generations and developed into a complete language that covers all speech occasions
Accent
the way in which a person pronounces a language
Generative grammar
the idea that the human brain is hard-wired with rules to organize language
Anglophone world
places in the world where English is spoken
Lingua franca
a language spoken by people who do not share a native language
Language currency
the value of a language. Many people find English to have a high language currency
Language borrowing
the act of importing words into one language from another culture's language. The imported words are loanwords.
Language death
occurs when the last native speakers of a language have died or not new generations speak their ancestors' language fluently
Endangered language
a language in danger of dying
Linguistic imperialism
the dominance of one language over others
AAVE
African American Vernacular English
Genderlect theory
Men and women have different conversational styles
Convergence
the tendency for disparate technological devices as they develop to perform similar tasks
New Media
an amorphous term that can be difficult to define - refers generally to internet, digital imaging, sound and voice recording and playback via all forms of hand-held or computer-based accessories such as webcams, mobile phones, tablets, and e-readers
Medium
the means or instrument of communication such as a newspaper or television, society at large often refers to "the media" as a broad collection of institutions that communicate information to the public, in a variety of media
Media
plural of medium - includes newspapers, magazines, books, e-books, radio broadcasts, television news, sitcoms, films, documentaries, websites, blogs
Mass Communication
takes place between the agent in the center and a large group on the periphery. One way communication
Register
language choices based on situation, the information being communicated, and the target audience, relationship between speakers (power, education, intimacy)
Frozen
printed, unchanging language, formal, almost scripted phrases - laws, the Bible
Formal
one way communication, no interruptions, impersonal and formal settings, complex sentences, complex syntax, shows respect, used in introductions, speeches, announcements
Consultative
two way participation, professional setting, prior knowledge not assumed, interruptions and feedback allowed, complex syntax, longer phrases - doctor/patient, lawyer/client, teacher/student
Casual
informal language, ellipsis and slang common, no background info provided, group language, interruptions common, context and non-verbal communication important - families, friends, teammates, chats and blogs
Intimate
non-public, private vocabulary often, intonation as important as wording
Ethos
credibility
Logos
rational and logical
Pathos
evokes pity or compassions
Style
closed related to register, style refers to the individual linguistic choices that make a communicative act distinctive
Advertising image
a picture created by an artist or camera; note the contrast, placement, and size
Slogan
also known as the tagline, the text is kept to a minimum, the slogan is often the most prominent text in the ad
Copy
product information, sometimes in the form of a small story. The trend recently is less copy in ads
Signature
the product and company name. These days a web address if often given
Character
a fictional figure who can become associated with the product (Joe Camel)
Cluster
a grouping of distinct textual or graphic elements that together convey an idea more strongly than when taken in isolation
Rhetoric
the art of persuasion
Association
the technique of linking products closely with certain values - constructed to appeal to the emotions of the consumer
Bandwagon
the technique or referring to something as popular so people will follow the examples of others
Problem and benefit
the technique of selling something you need. Keep in mind you mind ads may convince you of a need you were unaware of
Testimonials
the technique of using statements from ordinary people who recommend a certain product
Celebrities
the technique of using a well-known person as a product endorser
Counter-advertising
when companies or public service groups break the rules when it comes to advertising, use shock and surprise with unconventional or even controversial images and text
Culture jamming
refers to the ways in which individuals distort the messages and advertisements of large corporations and public spaces to make an argument
Mash-ups
mixture of elements
Graffiti
illicit drawing, writing, or scribbles
Parody
an imitation with mockery
Pastiche
an imitation
Rhetorical devices
Use of language that is intended to have an effect on its audience
Hyperbole
exaggeration
Stereotypes
a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing.
Anaphora
repetition of the same word or expression at the beginning of success phrases, clauses, sentences, or lines
Allusion
reference to people, places, events, literary work, mythos or works of art The speaker or writer associates him with the ideas of the original text and created a bond with the audience over shared knowledge.
Figurative language
similes, metaphors, personification and other figures of speech - uses words and phrases with a meaning that is different from the literal interpretation
Literal language
simply stating the facts
Rhetorical question
a question that requires no answer. It is used to draw attention to a point and is generally stronger than a direct statement.
Tricolon
a list of three, the cumulative effect of which has an effect on the audience
Parallelism
giving two or more parts of the sentence a similar form so as to give the whole a definite pattern
Polysyndeton
the deliberate use of many conjunctions for special emphasis. It may give the effect of building up to something or providing power to the sentence. It adds rhythm and cadence.
Media bias
subjective opinions that the media gives
Emotive language/loaded language
using words with obviously positive or negative connotations
Vague language
"many experts believe"
Euphemisms
words or phrases substituted for more direct words or phrases, often to make things easier to accept or make the situation less uncomfortable
Political cartoon
illustrations or comic strips containing a political or social message that usually relates to current events or personalities
Context
the circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood and assessed.
Culture
the values, goals, convictions and attitudes that people share in a society.
Scene
a sequence of continuous action in a play, movie, opera, or book.
Act
a main division of a play, ballet, or opera.
Setting
the place or type of surroundings where something is positioned or where an event takes place; the place and time at which a play, novel, or film is represented as happening.
Stage directions
an instruction in the text of a play, especially one indicating the movement, position, or tone of an actor, or the sound effects and lighting.
Aside
a remark or passage by a character in a play that is intended to be heard by the audience but unheard by the other characters in the play.
Metaphor
a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.
Diction
the choice and use of words and phrases in speech or writing.
Protagonist
is the central character or leading figure in poetry, narrative, novel or any other story. A protagonist is sometimes called a "hero" by the audience or readers.
Antagonist
is a character or a group of characters which stand in opposition to the protagonist or the main character.
Climax
the most intense, exciting, or important point of something; a culmination or apex.
Denouement
the final part of a play, movie, or narrative in which the strands of the plot are drawn together and matters are explained or resolved.
Tragedy
a play dealing with tragic events and having an unhappy ending, especially one concerning the downfall of the main character.
Realism
the quality or fact of representing a person, thing, or situation accurately or in a way that is true to life.
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