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Intro to nursing Ch. 2, 4, & 24
Terms in this set (78)
Def. of Health
Health is more than the absence of disease.
State of complete physical, mental, and social well being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Individual views of health
May vary among age groups, genders, races, and cultures
A model is a
theoretical way of understanding a concept or an idea.
Health Belief Model def.
Addresses the relationship between a persons beliefs and behaviors.
Health Belief Model has three components:
1. The patients perception of susceptibility to an illness
2. the patient's perception of the seriousness of the illness
3. and the likelihood that the patient will take preventive action.
The health belief model helps you understand factors influencing patients' perceptions, beliefs, and behavior and to plan care that will most effectively help patients maintain or restore health and prevent illness.
The Health Promotion Model def.
Is directed at increasing a patients level of well- being.
The Health Promotion Model is a framework for integrating the perspectives of nursing and behavioral science and the factors that influence health. The model focuses on three areas:
1. Individual characteristics and experiences
2. behavior-specific cognitions and affect
3. and behavioral outcomes.
Basic Human Needs model:
Attempts to meet the patients basic needs (Maslow)
Holistic Health Model:
Attempts to create conditions that promote optimal health.
The basic human needs model def. in greater detail:
The basic human needs model helps you understand the needs of patients and families, their behaviors, and their readiness to take part in health promotion activities. Basic human needs are the elements necessary for survival and health.
The holistic model def. in greater detail:
The holistic model, as proposed by Mandle, is also known as complementary or alternative medicine. It is based on a comprehensive view of the person as a biopsychosocial and spiritual being. Holistic health models of nursing promote optimal health by incorporating active participation of patients in improving their health state.
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs chart (remember the levels from greatest importance to least)
1. Physiological Needs (Air, food, shelter, clothing, sleep)
2. Safety and Security Needs (Health, employment, property, family, stability)
3. Love and Belongingness Needs (Friendship, family, intimacy, connections)
4. Self- Esteem Needs (confidence, achievements, respect of others, connections, need for individuality)
5. Self- Actualization (Mortality, creativity, spontaneity, acceptance, experience purpose, meaning and inner potential.)
According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which of these needs would the patient seek to meet first?
A. Self- actualization
B. Psychological Security
D. Love and belonging
The answer is C.
It falls under the first category of importance.
What are the Healthy People 2020 goals? (4)
1. Attain high- quality, longer lives
2. Achieve health equality
3. Create social and physical environments that promote good health
4. Promote quality of life across all life stages
-Internal variables- that influence health and health beliefs and practices. (4)
1. Developmental Stage
2. Intellectual Background
3. Emotional Factors
4. Spiritual Factors
-External variables- that influence health and health beliefs and practices. (3)
1. Family Practices
2. Socioeconomic Factors
3. Cultural Background
After evaluating a patient's external variables, the nurse concludes that health beliefs and practices can be influenced by?
A. Emotional factors
B. Intellectual Background
C. Developmental stage
D. Socioeconomic factors
The answer is D. It is the only external factor listed :)
Passive strategies of Health Promotion def.
Individuals fain from the activities of other without acting themselves.
Active strategies of health promotion def:
Individuals adopt specific health programs.
The Three levels of Prevention are?
Includes health promotion, wellness education programs, immunizations, hearing protection in occupational settings, training to develop good body mechanics, and health screening for prostate, breast, and colon cancer.
Is provided in the home, health care facility, or skilled nursing facility. It includes screening techniques and treating early stages of disease to limit disability by delaying the consequences of advanced disease.
Aims to help patients achieve as high a level of functioning as possible. This level of care is called preventive care because it involves preventing further disability or reduced functioning.
You will use the concept of primary prevention when instructing a patient to
A. Get a flue shot every year
B. Take a blood pressure reading every day
C. Explore hiring a patient with a known disability
D. Undergo physical therapy following a cerebrovascular accident
The Answer is A. It is the only primary prevention listed.
Risk factors def:
Variables that increase the vulnerability of an individual or a group to an illness or accident
More info on risk factors:
-Risk factors threaten health, influence health practices, and are important considerations in illness prevention activities.
A risk factor can be:
A situation, habit, social or environmental condition, physiological or psychological condition, developmental or intellectual condition, spiritual condition, or other variable.
Risk factors include:
- Genetic and physiological factors
(Not thinking about change)
(thinking about change)
(Doing some physical activity)
(Doing enough physical activity)
(Making a physical activity habit)
A state in which a persons physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental, or spiritual functioning is diminished or impaired.
Acute illness def:
Short duration and severe
Persists longer than 6 months.
Sally has decided to set aside 30 minutes a day to walk after work next week. Sally is in what stage of risk factor modification?
The answer on our notes say C, but that is wrong. The real answer is B.
Preparation means some activity is being done, it does not say she has done her walking yet. It says she has set aside time to which would actually be Contemplation.
Involves how people monitor their bodies and define and interpret their symptoms
Internal Variables influence the way patients behave when they are ill.
These are the patient's perceptions of symptoms and the nature of the illness. If patients believe that the symptoms of their illnesses disrupt their normal routine, they are more likely to seek health care assistance than if they do not perceive the symptoms as disruptive.
External variables influencing a patient's illness behavior include:
The visibility of symptoms, social group, cultural background, economic variables, accessibility of the health care system, and social support. The visibility of the symptoms of an illness affects body image and illness behavior. A patient with a visible symptom is more likely to seek assistance than a patient who does not have visible symptoms.
Impact of illness on the Patient and Family:
-Behavioral and emotional changes
-Impact on body image
-Impact on self- concept
-Impact on family roles and family dynamics
Community- based health care focuses on:
- Primary prevention rather than acute care
- Providing knowledge about health and health promotion and models of care to the community
Public health problems influenced by:
- Social lifestyles
Healthy People Initiative (USDHHS) does what?
Establishes ongoing health care goals
Improved delivery of Health Care improves through what?
Occurs through the assessment of the health care needs of individuals, families, or members of the community; development and implementation of public health policies; and improved access to care.
A systematic community assessment leads to what?
Leads to community health promotion programs, such as exercise programs for school-aged children to reduce the risks for childhood obesity, nutrition education for expectant mothers, and smoking cessation for adolescents.
Health professionals provide leadership in:
Developing public policies to support the health of a population
Five- level Health Services pyramid:
The five-level health services pyramid is an example of how to provide community-based services within the existing health care services in a community.
When lower level services are accessible and effective, there is a greater likelihood that higher tiers will contribute to the health of the community
Public Health Nursing def.
Focuses on the needs of a population.
Public Health nurses understand
Factors that influence health promotion and health maintenance
Trends and patterns that influence the incidence of disease
Environmental facts that contribute to health and illness
Political processes that affect public policy
A population is a collection of individuals who have in common one or more personal or environmental characteristics.
Community- Based Nursing:
Occurs in community settings (DUH) :)
Involves acute and chronic care
Enhances individuals capacity for self- care
Promotes autonomy in decision making
Uses critical thinking skills
Reduces costs for the patient by providing care near homes
Requires knowledge of family theory, communication, group dynamics, and cultural diversity
Vulnerable Populations include:
- Poor and homeless
- Substance abusers
- Mentally ill
- Older adults
Vulnerable Population Def.
A vulnerable population includes patients who are more likely to develop health problems as a result of excess risks, have limited access to health care services, or depend on others for care. The special needs of these groups create challenges for nurses in caring for increasingly complex acute and chronic health conditions.
Vulnerable populations of patients are those who are more likely to develop health problems as a result of
A. Living at home
B. Abusive habits
D. Middle Age
The answer is B it is the only one listed that is included in the list for vulnerable people or populations :)
Nurses utilize a variety of competencies such as:
Assess the community at large
Nurses care for patients from diverse backgrounds and settings, but all communities have three components:
- Structure or locale
- Social Systems
In identifying needs for health policy and health program development and services, a community assessment focuses on which of the following elements?
C. Social Systems
E. All of the above
The answer is E. All of the choices listed are apart of the "three components" Do not get confused because 4 choices are listed. In the book it clumps structure and locale together.
Patients are more likely to accept a change to their health if it is:
Easy to Adopt
Family Durability def:
Interfamilial system of support and structure that may extend beyond the walls of the household
Family resiliency def:
Ability to cope with expected and unexpected stressors
Family diversity def:
Uniqueness of each family unit
Current Trends and New Family Forms include:
-Single- Parent Family
-Alternative patterns of relationships
Nuclear Family def:
consists of husband and wife (and perhaps one or more children).
Extended family def:
extended family includes relatives (aunts, uncles, grandparents, and cousins), in addition to the nuclear family.
Single- parents family def:
The single-parent family is formed when one parent leaves the nuclear family because of death, divorce, or desertion, or when a single person decides to have or adopt a child.
Blended family def:
The blended family is formed when parents bring unrelated children from prior or foster parenting relationships into a new, joint living situation.
Alternative family relationships include:
Alternative family relationships include multi-adult households, "skip-generation" families (grandparents caring for grandchildren), communal groups with children, "nonfamilies" (adults living alone), and cohabitating partners.
Factors influencing family forms:
-Changing economic status
-acute or chronic illness
Many factors influence health including:
Factors that moderate a family's stress:
-Hardiness (is the internal strengths and durability of the family unit)
-Resilience (helps to evaluate healthy responses when individuals and families are experiencing stressful events)
There are different approaches for family nursing practice. There are three levels of approaches:
1. Family as context
2. Family as patient
3. Family as system
Family as a context:
Focuses on the health and development of an individual member existing within a specific environment
Family as patient:
Focus is on the family processes and relationships
Family as system:
Focus is on the family as contact and as patient
A patient comes from a close- knit family. The patients family functions as context. you will need to evaluate:
A. Attainment of patient needs
B. Family attainment of developmental tasks
C. Individual family members caring about one another
D. Family satisfaction with its new level of functioning
Answer is A. It states that the family functions as context. Context focuses on the health and development of an individual member existing within a specific environment. Making A the best option :)
Family assessment is a priority for providing adequate family care and support. Areas included in family assessment are:
the form, structure, and function of the family; its developmental stage; and its progress toward or accomplishment of developmental tasks.
When a nurse completes the nursing data own a client to complete the admission and develop a plan of care, the nurse will need to:
A. Test the family units ability to cope
B. Evaluate communication patterns
C. Identify family unit form and attitudes
D. Gather health data from all family members
A nurse teaches a client who is prescribed an insulin pump. Which statement should the nurse include in this client's discharge education?
The term used for persons living in long-term care facilities is ?
A patient admitted to the hospital with pneumonia has been receiving antibiotics for 2 days. His condition has stabilized, and his temperature has returned to normal. Which stage of infection is the patient most likely experiencing?
A 17-year-old client who lives with her parents wishes to have a breast reduction. Which information will the nurse provide to the client?
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