UNIT 10 SLANG- Civil Rights, Kennedy & LBJ
Terms in this set (60)
Executive Order 9981
Established equality of treatment and opportunity in the Armed Services for people of all races, religions, or national origins; issued by President Harry S Truman.
(a.k.a. States' Rights Party) Third party in the election of 1948 that nominated Governor Strom Thurmond of South Carolina in response to Truman's support of civil rights.
Document written in response to the Supreme Court's order to integrate schools "with all deliberate speed," following the Brown decision; encouraged white Southerners to defy the Supreme Court.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 landmark case that ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional and violated the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment; argued by Thurgood Marshall; presided over by Chief Justice Earl Warren.
De Facto Segregation
separation of racial groups, not necessarily by law, but in fact.
De Jure Segregation
separation of racial groups required by law.
Refused to give up her seat to a white man on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama in 1955 which led to a bus boycott and sparked the Civil Rights movement.
Montgomery Improvement Association
Organized to run the bus boycott and presided over by Martin Luther King, Jr.
Little Rock Nine
Group of African American students who integrated Central High School in 1957 despite Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus' attempts to halt integration.
(a.k.a. Nonviolent Passive Resistance) A protest strategy where resistance to unjust laws or government is undertaken in a nonviolent public way.
Civil Rights Act 1957
Federal legislation intended to protect voting rights for African Americans and established the Commission on Civil Rights.
Civil Rights Act 1964
Landmark legislation that outlawed discrimination in most public accommodations, discrimination in employment, and established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission as a permanent agency.
Civil Rights Act 1968
(a.k.a. Fair Housing Act) Prohibited discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin, and, later, gender.
Voting Rights Act 1965
Outlawed discriminatory voting practices such as literacy tests as a prerequisite to voting.
Prohibited the use of poll taxes in federal elections.
(a.k.a. desegregation) Process of ending systematic racial segregation.
Separation of people based on race, class or ethnicity.
Jim Crow laws
Laws designed to enforce racial segregation and maintain white supremacy in the South after the Civil War.
A group effort to protest unfair practices by refusing to deal with businesses or people regarded as unfair.
(Southern Christian Leadership Conference) Created following the success of nonviolent protest in the Montgomery Bus Boycott by Martin Luther King, Jr. and fellow African American ministers to challenge segregation and encourage black people to vote.
(Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) Organization formed to support nonviolent protests and increase younger advocates roles in the civil rights movement.
First African American student enrolled at the University of Mississippi.
A voter registration project in Mississippi during the summer of 1964.
Protestors who traveled on buses throughout the South in 1961 challenging segregation laws in interstate transportation and public facilities.
NAACP field secretary in MS murdered in his driveway by Byron De La Beckwith in 1963.
Governor of Alabama who tried to bodily block African American students from entering the University of Alabama in 1963; ran for U.S. President four times.
March on Washington
200,000 demonstrators flocked to the nation's capital in support of civil rights reform on August 28, 1963; attendees witnessed speeches, hymns, songs, and, of course, MLK's "I Have a Dream" speech, advocating racial harmony.
A hot spot of civil rights' demonstrations including King's arrest and marches by children in 1963 which helped garner support for civil rights legislation.
Selma to Montgomery March
Selected by the SCLC and Dr. King as the site for the 1965 voting rights campaign; a 50 mile "march for freedom" to the Alabama state capitol.
(Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party) Organized to challenge the legality of the segregated Democratic Party at the 1964 Democratic National Convention.
Fannie Lou Hamer
Former sharecropper evicted from her land after registering to vote; organizer of SNCC and the MFDP.
Nation of Islam
African American religious and nationalist movement in the United States that advocated for the establishment of a separate nation for African Americans.
Large-scale race riot in a neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, that lasted for six days in August 1965.
Radical, militant organization founded in 1966 originally formed to protect African Americans from police brutality; promoted Black Power, and, by extension, self-defense for blacks.
Established in July 1967 by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots in the United States.
Policy that attempts to address past discrimination against various groups by improving employment and educational opportunities.
Established, in writing, the succession to the office of the President, in the case of the President's inability to fulfill his duties.
Kennedy's defensive strategy of building up conventional troops and weapons to allow for a limited war without the use of nuclear weapons.
John Kennedy's domestic agenda to help the economy, address poverty and develop the space program.
Organization established in 1961 through which American volunteers worked in developing nations around the world.
Equal Pay Act
1963 legislation aimed at abolishing wage discrimination based on gender; amended the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.
Alliance for Progress
Series of cooperative aid projects with Latin American governments designed to create a free and prosperous Latin America more likely to resist communist revolutions.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Unsuccessful attempt by Cuban exiles, sponsored by the U.S. military, to overthrow communist Cuban leader Fidel Castro in April 1961.
Concrete and barbed wire barrier surrounding the German city of West Berlin; constructed by the Soviet Union in 1961 to stop people from fleeing communist East Berlin.
Cuban Missile Crisis
American naval blockade and standoff between the US and Soviet Union in 1962 after the discovery of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba.
military strategy that attempts to isolate a country by preventing the movement of its people and goods.
Kennedy's Inaugural Address
Inspirational address to the nation in 1961 calling upon Americans to "ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country."
Televised Presidential Debates
1960 debates between presidential candidates Richard M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy drawing millions of viewers to the first ever televised debates.
Committee headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren that investigated the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963, concluding that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in killing the president.
Proclaimed his first step on the moon as "one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind."
Lyndon Johnson's vision of a more perfect and equitable society; his domestic agenda took on health and welfare, education, poverty, consumer protection, and environmental protection.
Established a comprehensive health insurance program for all elderly people.
Provided health and medical assistance to low-income families.
Immigration Act of 1965
Legislation that eliminated the national origins system of the 1920s; though it placed limits on the number of immigrants admitted to the U.S., it opened the door for newcomers from all parts of Europe, as well as from Asia and Africa.
(Volunteers in Service to America) domestic equivalent of the Peace Corps; placed young people with skills and community-minded ideals to work in poor neighborhoods and rural areas to help people overcome poverty.
The Other America
Michael Harrington's 1962 book that chronicled poverty in the United States.
"War on Poverty"
Lyndon Johnson's anti-poverty program.
Office of Economic Opportunity
Part of the "war on poverty;" created to coordinate new programs under the Economic Opportunity Act, many of which were directed at young Americans living in the inner city.
First African American to serve in the president's cabinet; served as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
Great Society program that funded (and still funds) a preschool program for disadvantaged children.
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