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INR Chapter 10 (2nd Exam)
Terms in this set (52)
Larger institutions and groupings such as the European union to which state authority or national identity is subordinated
- the UN has some of these aspects
- on a regional level, the EU is more of a this entity
the process by which supranational institutions come to replace national ones; the gradual shifting upward of some sovereignty from the state to regional or global structures. the ultimate expression of this would be the merger of several sates into a single state or ultimately into a single world government.
-this theory attempts to explain why states choose supra nationalism, which challenges the foundations of realism.
A theory that holds that economic integration (functionalism) generates a "spillover" effect, resulting in increased political integration.
-argue that economic integration (functionalism) generates a political dynamic that drives integration further
A situation in which low expectations of interstate violence permit a high degree of separation between religious and political organizations
-prime example of identity principle
European Union (EU)
The official term for the European community (formerly the European Economic Community) and associated treaty organizations. The EU has 25 member states and is negotiating with other states that have applied for membership
Treaty of Rome
The founding document of the European economic community (EEC) or Common Market, now subsumed by the European Union
-1957, france, germany, italy, belgium, the netherlands, and luxembourg
-created two new organzations.
-the treaty of rome committed six states to creating a customs union by 1969
an organization created by the treaty of Rome in 1957 to coordinate nuclear power development by pooling research, investment, and management.
Free trade area
a zone in which there are no tariffs or other restrictions on the movement of goods and services across borders.
a common external tariff adopted by members of a free trade area; that is, participating states adopt a unified set of tariffs with regard to goods coming in from outside
-creates a free and open trade within its member states, bring great economic benefits.
-this remains the heart of the EU
a zone in which labor and capital (as well as goods) flow freely across borders
ex: a Belgian financier can invest in Germany on the same terms as a German investor
common agricultural policy (CAP)
A European Union policy based on the principle that a subsidy extended to farmers in any member country should be extended to farmers in all member countries
-subsidies to farmers are the single greatest source of trade friction between Europe and the united states
A European Union body whose members, while appointed by states, are supposed to represent EU interests. Supported by a multinational civil service in Brussels, the commission's role is to identify problems and propose solutions to the Council of Ministers.
-headquarters in Brussels, Belgium
-lacks forma autonomous power except for day to day EU operations
Council of the European Union
A European Union institution in which the relevant ministers (foreign, economic, agriculture, finance, etc) of each member state to meet to enact legislation and reconcile national interest's. Formerly knows as the council of ministers. When the meeting takes place among the state leaders, it is called the "European Council"
-all members must agree
-at least 55% of EU members must votes in favor
A quasi-legislative body of the European Union that operates as watchdog over the European Commission and has limited legislative power.
-shares power with the council under a "co-decision procedure" in such areas such as migration, employment, health, and consumer protection.
European Court of Justice
A judicial arm of the European Union, based in Luxembourg. unlike the World court The court has actively established its jurisdiction and its rights to overrule national law when it conflicts with EU law.
-it also hears cases brought by individuals, not just governments.
Single European Act
An act that set a target date of the end of 1992 for the creation of a true common market (free cross-border movement of goods, capital, people and services) in the European Community (EC)
-first major revision of the treaty of rome-1985 began a new phase of accelerated integration.
ex: chocolate (pg.363)
A treaty signed in the Dutch city of Maastricht and ratified in 1992; it commits the European Union to monetary union (a single currency and European Central Bank) and to a common foreign policy.
-renamed the EC to the EU
Also called the ECU (European currency unit); a single European currency used by 16 members of the European Union (EU)
A European Union agreement that replaces a failed attempt at an EU constitution with a similar set of reforms strengthening central EU authority and modifying voting procedures among the EU's expanded membership .
The gap in access to information technologies between rich and poor people, and between the global north and south
a term critical of U.S dominance of the emerging global culture
Supranational processes bring states together in larger structures and identities. These processes generally lead to an ongoing struggle between nationalism and supranationalism.
an alliance involving 3 or more countries for their mutual benefit such as economic, cultural or political/ military.
Ex: European Union, NAFTA, OPEC
Transnational Actors: MNCs and NGOs
Transnational Issues: global warming or the spread of information technology
-they force states to work together because they cannot solve or manage the issue alone.
European integration began with the cooperation of Europe's two bitterest enemies- France and West Germany.
-integration challenged the realist assumption that states were strictly autonomous and would never yield power or sovereignty.
-functionalism predicted that states would be drawn together into stronger international economic structures.
-integration reduces states' ability to shield themselves and their citizens from the world's many problems and conflicts.
-a wave of disintegration occurred
-growth of specialized technical organizations that cross national borders.
-common interests and needs shared by states (but also by non-state actors) in a process of global integration triggered by the erosion of state sovereignty and the increasing weight of knowledge and hence of scientists and experts in the process of policy-making
-ex: delivering mail from one country to another.
Free Trade Agreements
(Association of South East Asian Nations)
Andean Common Market
- free trade area with Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, and Columbia
- The largest latin american trade agreement; includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay
4) African Union, its predecessor, (OAU) Organization of African Unity
The European Union
It was created after WWII.
two french leaders:
were developing a plan to get the idea of functionalism in Europe that future wars could be prevented by creating economic linkages that would eventually bind states together politically.
- IOs like the Universal Postal Union came before political ones such as the UN
-the EU operates the
European Space Agency
European Molecular Biology Laboratory
-has expanded to 27 members, maybe 28
European Coal and Steel Community
(1)- Former name of European Union established in Treaty of Paris 1951/1952 (THIS IS ON TEST)
International organization to control and integrate all European coal and steel production. Consisted of West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and France. Number 1 goal to be so close together economically that war against them impossible. "the six"
- "benelux countries"
-Britain did not join
European Defense Community
-Second treaty in 1952
The purpose of this was to establish a common European army, under joint control, so that Germany could be safely permitted to rearm and help counter the Soviet threat. The EPC was to establish a federation of European states. However, the French National Assembly refused to ratify the EDC treaty
European Political Community
combination of ECSC (european coal and steel community) and EDC (European defense community).
European Atomic Energy Community
-also knows as Euratom
an agreement that was established on the same day as the European Community by a second, separate Treaty of Rome and that focused primarily on creating a market for and distributing atomic energy throughout the European states
European Economic Community
(2) -it was later renamed European Community,
-An economic organization established in 1957 to reduce tariff barriers and promote trade among the countries of Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, France, Italy, and West Germany. These countries became the original members of the European Community in 1965.
European Free Trade Association
(EFTA) , An association of Western European nations agreeing to favor each other in respect to tariffs. Members were Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Portugal, Switzerland, and Great Britain. Sometimes referred to as the Outer Seven-i.e., outside the Common Market; formed in 1959.
Economic and Monetary Union
aspect of the European Union designed to integrate economic and monetary policies and establish the euro as a single currency; created by the 1992 Maastricht Treaty and officially came into existence in 1999
Bureaucrats who care more about technical problem solving than about politics, these supranational bureaucrats are balanced in the EU structure by provisions that uphold the power of states and state leaders
ultimate decision-making body of the EU, it passes legislation from the commission into law and is comprised of one representative from each member state's government
-27 state leaders, meet with the EC president twice a year
Economic and Social Committee
discusses continent-wide issues that affect particular industries or constituencies
The Masstricht Treaty
It committed the further progress of the EU in three ways
1) monetary union, in which the existing national currencies were abolished and replaced by a single European currency
2) regarding justice and home affairs, created a European police agency and responded to the new reality that border the idea of citizenship, so that, for example, a french citizen living in Germany can vote in local elections there.
3) political and military integration
-caused loss of national identity and sovereignty
Monetary union is difficult for both economic and political reasons.
- restrict membership in the monetary unions at least in the first round to only those countries with enough financial stability not to jeopardize the union.
-a monetary union infringes on a core prerogative of states- the right to print currency
-the euro is only as strong as its weakest member
The 12 EU countries that currently use the euro as the official currency.
Treaty of Nice
EU's December 2000 treaty that opened the door to the broadening of the EU in 2004 and 2007 and outlined provisional plans for reforming the EU's institutions so they could function effectively with as many as thirty members, including the possibility of enacting a constitution.
The free movement of persons is a fundamental right guaranteed by the EU to its citizens. Enables citizens to cross internal borders without being subjected to border checks.
High Commissioner on Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
created to better coordinate foreign policy among member states
Organization for security and cooperation in europe
only known universal IGO operating in EU; major forum on security and helps run elections, political parties, and helps other countries in need.
activities to stop terrorists from using force and responding when they do
false information purposely disseminated, usually by a government, for the purpose of creating a false impression
Allowing light to pass through so that objects can be clearly seen on the other side; the opposite of opaque.
Internet Corporation for Assigned names and numbers
the organization responsible for managing the assignment of public IP addresses and domain names for use on the internet. Each public IP address is unique across all computers on the internet.
- process by which the people of the world are unified in a wider society
- anthony giddens: intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away, vice versa.
- said to be a political contest (winners and losers)
- trade roads were build, global companies started their functions, global economy and finance system are created.
- tribes transformed to peoples, international authorities of governance.
- great migration of peoples started, new lands founds, empires created.
- social ideas spread on huge territories
- mass media and internet, writing, speech
Criteria for measuring globalization
1) political engagement : foreign aid, treaties, organizations, peacekeeping, ex: EU
2) personal contact: phones, travel, remittances, movies, skype
3) technological connectivity: number of internet users, hosts, and secure serves, increases "transparency"
-one of the most powerful tools that has poltical impact- cable map
4) economic integration: international trade and foreign direct investment
ex: EU, NAFTA
1) increasing trade
2) dispersing production processes
3) transnational dispersing
- international integration
- most successful: EU
functionalism- spillover and integration
sense of community
other attempts at integration
costs of integration
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