Health Science 1 Midterm Review
Terms in this set (107)
What organs are in the thoracic cavity?
Heart, lungs, bronchi, trachea, and some great blood vessels
What organs are in the abdominal cavity?
Stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, small and large intestines,
How does the sagittal plane split the body?
Right and Left
How does the coronal (frontal) plane split the body?
Anterior and posterior
(front and back)
How does the transverse plane split the body?
Top and Bottom
What is an organ made of?
toward the midline
away form the midline
near the point of referance
ex. fingers are proximal to the wrist
farthest away from the point of referance
ex. fingers are distal to the midline
What is the fluid contained in the double walled membranes that line the cavities?
What is joint fluid?
What is hemopoesis?
Production of red blood cells
Bones of the arm?
Radius, ulna, humerous, scapula, clavicle
What are the bones in the leg?
femur, patella, fibula, tibia
-weakest joint in the body
-provides the most movement out of all joints
-ex. shoulder(humerous and scapula), or hip(femur and ischium)
-movement in only 2 directions
-ex. knee (tibia/fibula and femur)
-joint contains a pivot point
-almost full circumduction
-ex. wrist, or head
-bones glide over one another
What are joints in the skull called?
What is gout? Who typically gets gout?
-a build up or uric acid in the body, commonly in the big toe
-bone penetrates the skin
-high risk of infection
-treated: internal fixation or external fixation
-bone in shatttered
-treatment: internal fixation and immobilization
-a partial break
-usually in children
-bone twists and breaks
-aka closed fracture
-does not penetrate skin
What is the bone disease that older people get where the bones become brittle and porous?
what is kyphosis
-Exaggerated Thoracic curvature
What is lordosis?
-abnormal anterior curve of the spine
-butt sticks out
-most common in women
what is scoliosis?
-Lateral curvature of the spine
What is an open reduction?
Surgery where screws or plates are placed
What is a closed reduction?
-manual realignment of the bones
What is a sprain?
Muscle/ligament/tendon is torn and bleeding
What is a strain?
What are the 4 types of muscles? and an example of each?
-Sphincter: pyloric sphincter
-Cardiac: only found in the heart
-Smooth: found in organs, ex.blood vessels
What is myasthenia gravis?
Autoimmune disorder that is characterized by fatigue & weakness in the muscles
What is muscular dystrophy?
-Inherited degenerative disorder of the muscle.
-Most common in boys
-usually starts in the legs
Waht is fibromyalgia?
long-term, body-wide pain, certain trigger points are in pain
Functions of the muscular system?
What is a hernia?
Weakining the abdominal muscle, that causes the muscle to bulge.
What are the four characteristics of a muscle?
-contractibility: ability of a muscle to shorten
-excitability: ability of muscles to respond to a stimuli
-extensibility: ability of muscles to stretch
-elasticity: ability of muscles to return to original length
What are the 4 blood types?
How does blood flow thru the heart?
superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle
What is the smallest unit of blood? What do they help with?
What is the liquid portion of the blood?
What type of blood cell contains hemoglobin?
What are erythrocytes?
Red blood Cells
What are the 5 types of white blood cells?
What is a leukocyte?
White blood cell
What is a thrombocyte?
What is another name for the bicuspid valve?
What is a TIA?
-Transient Ischemic Attack
What is an MI?
what is hypertension?
high blood pressure
What is the contraction phase of the heartbeat?
What is the resting phase of the heartbeat?
What disorder is a complication of an Rh negative mother having an Rh positive baby?
erythroblastosis anemia fetalis
What is Hemophilia?
-absence of factor B
-missing clotting factors
What disease is most common in African Americans?
Sickle cell anemia
If someone has sickle cell anemia what disease are they automatically immune to? Why?
Malaria travels on the red blood cell and since the red blood cell is deformed, malaria can not be transported
What is the largest lymphatic vessel?
what are lymph nodes?
tiny, oval shaped structures,located everywhere in the body
Where is the spleen located?
Upper left quadrant of the abdominal cavity
Why do people need vaccinations?
The vaccines produce antibodies that are able to fight certain diseases, and prevent them form occuring. Gives you active acquired immunity
What is natural acquired immunity?
occurs through contact with a disease causing agent. Your body produces antibodies to fight it off and those antibodies will always remember that same disease
What is the treatment for anaphylactic shock?
What is artifical aquired immunity?
You get a vaccine
What autoimmune disease is characterized by a butterfly reash on the face?
What is cancer of the lymph nodes?
What is the membrane that covers the lungs?
Which respiratory sturcture serves as a common passage for food and air?
What is the fatty substance that lines the aveoli
Patients with emphysema have difficulty doing what?
Exhaling- blowing air out
What is a pneumothorax?
Why would you not get antibiotics for a cold?
antibiotics do not help viral infections
What are symptoms of the flu?
pain, achy, fever, runny nose, sore throat, fatigue
What are the primary organs in the digestive system?
mouth, esophagus, stomach,small intestine, large intestine
What are the accessory orgains in the digestive system?
tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder
What is the buccal cavity?
What are the parts of the large intestine?
cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, decending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anal canal
What are the parts of the small intestine?
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What is Hepatitis B? How is it transmitted?
-irratation and swelling of the liver due to infection
Where are nutrients absorbed in the digestive tract?
What is chime?
food after it is mixed with stomach acids
What is a bolus?
food after it is chewed
What are the symptoms of gall bladder disease?
nausae, vomitting, abdominal pain, and pain between shoulder blades
Arms are ______?
The shape and structure of the body is known as?
Levels of organization (least complex to most complex)
cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organisim
Functions of the skeletal systmem?
Protection, Support, Movement, Blood Cell production, and Mineral storage
Functions of cardiovascular system?
pumps blood throughout the entire body, transport nutrients and oxygen, regulates heat, and protection
Functions of the lymphatic system?
fluid balance, lyphocyte production, filtration, and immunity
Functions of the respiratory system?
breathing, and getting CO2
Functions of the digestive system?
breakdown food and excrete waste
What are the 3 parts of a muscle?
body, origin, insertion
increased muscle size
ex. using steroids
decreased muscle size
Muscle fatigue is caused by what?
a build up of lactic acid
The universal blood donor is?
The universal blood recipiant is?
Treatment for hypertension is?
weight loss, medicine, imporved diet
What is the medicine given to mothers to prevent erythroblastosis anemia fetalis?
What is the largest lympatic structure?
Symptoms of mono?
swelling of lymph nodes and spleen, extreme fatigue
Hodgkin's disease is scharacterized by?