(Marieb) Chapter 14 The Digestive System and Body Metabolism
Terms in this set (51)
The process of physically and chemically breaking food particles down is referred to as ________.
The ________ runs from the pharynx through the diaphragm to the stomach.
The ________ sphincter, or valve, controls food movement from the stomach into the small intestine.
Large wrinkle-like folds in the stomach lining, present when the stomach is empty, that allow for expansion when the stomach is filling are called ________.
The three subdivisions of the small intestine are ________.
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
The fingerlike projections of the small intestine increase the surface area and are known as ________.
Bile is formed by the ________.
Cells abundant within the large intestine that produce large amounts of lubricating mucus to aid in the passage of feces to the end of the digestive tract are called ________.
The process of chewing is known as ________.
The portion of the tooth embedded in the jawbone is the ________.
The enzyme produced by the salivary glands used in the breakdown of starches is salivary ________.
The active, voluntary process of placing food in one's mouth is ________.
When digestion is not occurring in the small intestine, bile is stored in the ________.
The process of eliminating indigestible residues from the GI tract is called ________.
The hormones secretin and cholecystokinin target the pancreas, ________, and ________ to release pancreatic juice and bile into the small intestine for digestion.
When feces are forced into the rectum by mass movements and the wall of the rectum becomes stretched, the ________ reflex is initiated.
Sugars and starches are types of organic compounds known as ________.
________ refers to all chemical reactions necessary to maintain life.
The major fuel for making ATP in most cells of the body is a type of carbohydrate known as ________.
The three main metabolic pathways involved in cellular respiration are ________.
glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain
The lipoprotein that transports cholesterol and other lipids to body cells is called ________.
low-density lipoprotein or LDL
Which one of the following represents the correct order through which food passes in the alimentary canal?
A) mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine
B) mouth, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
C) pharynx, mouth, esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine
D) mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
E) mouth, pharynx, esophagus, small intestine, stomach, large intestine
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
The fold of mucous membrane that secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its posterior movements is called the ________.
What sphincter regulates the passage of food from the esophagus into the stomach?
The small intestine extends from the ________.
pyloric sphincter (valve) to the ileocecal valve
What organs release secretions into the duodenum of the small intestine?
liver and pancreas
One of the main functions of the small intestine is ________.
absorption of nutrients
Which one of the following is NOT a subdivision of the large intestine?
The organ responsible for drying out indigestible food residue through water absorption and the elimination of feces is the ________.
What is the purpose of mastication?
to chew, grind and tear food into smaller pieces while in the mouth
Amylase is an enzyme that is only able to digest ________.
The anterior chisel-shaped teeth that are adapted for cutting are called ________.
What organ stores bile when food digestion is not occurring?
The propulsive process that moves food from one organ to the next is called ________.
Proteins are digested to their building blocks which are called ________.
Digestion is primarily controlled by the ________.
parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
Which digestive system organ is the target of gastrin?
Pepsin is necessary for the stomach to break down ________.
The energy value of foods commonly counted by dieters is measured in units called ________.
kilocalories (kcal) or Calories
Which one of the following is NOT a main role of the liver?
A) detoxify drugs and alcohol
B) degrade hormones
C) make cholesterol
D) process nutrients during digestion
E) add ammonia to the blood
add ammonia to the blood
Organ where carbohydrate absorption occurs
Organ where starch digestion begins
Tube through which food is propelled to the stomach but lacks a digestive role
Organ where protein digestion begins
Organ where pancreatic enzymes and bile enter the alimentary canal
Physically fragmenting food particles into smaller particles
Where is most of your food digested?
in the small intestine
Which of these is an example of mechanical digestion?
What is the end product of protein digestion?
What is a function of saliva?
inhibits bacterial growth in the oral cavity
Acids in the stomach aid in the breakdown of this
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