67 terms

Pediatric - Module C

Pediatric - Module C
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macronutrients
major building blocks of the body (carbohydrates, proteins, fats)
micronutrients
substances needed in small quantities for healthy body functioning
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
set of values established by the Food and Nutrition Board of Institute used to assess and plan intake for individuals of different ages
early childhood caries
presence of one or more decayed, lost, or filled tooth surfaces in a primary tooth from birth to 6 yrs of age, can occur when a young child is allowed to nurse or drink from a bottle for long periods, especially when sleeping
physiologic anorexia
caused when the extremely high metabolic demands of infancy slow to keep pace with the more moderate growth rate of toddlerhood
food jags
eating only a few foods for several days or weeks (like toddlers will fixate on a specific food)
anthropometric measurement
refers to assessment of various part of the body. Young children - weight, length, head circumference
BMI (body mass index)
calculation based on child's weight and height, or length and is calculated as weight (kg)/height (squared)
food security
access at all times to enough nourishment for an active, healthy life
food insecurity
indicates an inability to acquire or consume adequate quality or quantity of foods in socially acceptable ways
anemia
reduction in the number of red blood cells
pica
eating disorder characterized by ingestion of nonfood items or food items consumed in abnormal quantities or forms
binge eating
a compulsion to consume large quantities of food in a short period of time
food intolerance
an abnormal physiologic response to a food that is not IgE mediated. examples include indigestion or flatulence upon eating certain foods.
food allergy
an IgE mediated reaction that is potentially systemic and characteristically rapid in onset
radioallergosorbent test (RAST)
radioimmunoassay is used to measure IgE antibodies to specific allergens
probiotic
live microorganism that improves the balance of gut microflora, thereby providing a health benefit
ergogenic acids
products that enhance physical performance by influencing energy, alertness or body composition
Lacto-ovovegetarians
eat eggs, and dairy products
Vegetarians
eat no poultry, meat or fish
vegans
strict vegetarians and eat no animal products
enteral therapy
form of nutritional support provided by oral or tube feedings when a child cannot take in enough food orally to sustain health
parenteral therapy
nutrition introduced outside of the intestinal tract, usually by the intravenous route
atresia
absence or closure of a normal body orifice
projectile vomiting
contents of the stomach may be ejected up to 3 feet from the infant
chronic vomiting
low-grade nearly daily emesis
cyclic vomiting
repeated severe vomiting of an episodic nature
omphaloceles
congenital malformations in which intra-abdominal contents herniate through the umbilical cord. Results when the intestines fail to return to the abdomen when the abdominal wall begins to close by the tenth week of gestation
gastroschisis
congenital defect of the ventral abdominal wall, characterized by herniation of abdominal viscera outside the abdominal cavity through a defect in the abdominal wall to the side of the umbilicus
intussusception
occurs when one portion of the intestine prolapses and then invaginates or telescopes into another.
volvulus
twisting of the intestine which causes necrosis of the bowel
hernia
protrusion of projection of an organ or a part of an organ through the muscle wall of the cavity that normally contains it
ostomy
intestinal opening
stoma
small or large intestine that diverts feal matter, providing an outlet when a distal surgical anastomosis, obstruction or nonfunctioning structure prevents normal elimination
cholestasis
disruption of bile flow
encopresis
an abnormal elimination pattern characterized by the recurrent soiling or passage of stool at inappropriate times by a child who should have achieved bowel continence
hyperbilirubinemia
abnormally elevated serum bilirubin level, requires timely assessment and appropriate intervention to prvent CNS
erythropoiesis
process of creating new blood cells
leukocytes
white blood cells
thrombocytes
platelets
polycythemia
above-average increase in the number of red cells in the blood
anemia
reduction in the number of red blood cells (various types)
leukopenia
decrease in the number of WBCs (white blood cells). can be caused by immune or bone marrow disorders
thrombycytopenia
deficiency of platelets that can lead to a bleeding disorder
Normocytic Anemia
increase in the destruction of red blood cells or decreased production of red blood cells r/t chronic hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, G6PD deficiency, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, autoimmune diseases (septic arthritis or meningitis or with children who suffer from inflammatory illnesses)
hemoglobinopathy
Hemoglobinopathy is a kind of genetic defect that results in abnormal structure of one of the globin chains of the hemoglobin molecule (sickle cell disease)
chelation therapy
a type of drug therapy used to unbind iron to the blood cell and excrete it through urine
thalassemias
group of inherited blood disorders of hemoglobin synthesis characterized by anemia that can be mild to severe.
aplastic anemia
deficiency of RBCs that results from failure of the bone marrow to produce adequate numbers of circulating blood cells
purpura
bleeding into the tissues
petechiae
pinpoint lesions
neutropenia
decreased number of neutrophils
pancytopenia
decreased number of blood cell components
hemarthrosis
bleeding of the joints
ecchymosis
easy bruising
polyuria
passage of large volume of urine in a given period
polydipsia
excessive thirst
water intoxication
an abnormal proportion of water to sodium in the extracellular fluid
thelarche
breast development
goiter
nontender enlarged thyroid gland
euthyroid
normal thyroid
exophthalmos
prominent eyes
thyotoxicosis
thyroid crisis
virilization
production of masculine secondary sexual characteristics in females
pseudohermaphroditism
ambiguous genitalia
polyphagia
excessive appetite
glycosuria
abnormal amount of glucose in the urine
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