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Investigating God's World, ch. 2

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vertebrates
animals w/ a backbone
habitat
kind of place an animal prefers to live
social animals
live in small or large groups w/ others of the same kind
warmblooded
animals designed to maintain a relatively constant body temp.
fur
mammals' warm covering, thicker & often forms 2 layers or coats
wool
very thick, curly hair found on domestic sheep
spines or quills
prickly hair used for protection
brisltes
tough, short hairs found on the almost hairless domestic pig & here & there on the heads of whales
whiskers
long facial hairs used for the sense of touch
keeps mammals warm & hides them from enemies
2 reasons for hair
horns, claws, nails, or hoofs
special structures in the skin that're produced in the same manner as hair & are often used for protection & defense
hard plates
come from the skin & cover the animal's body, providing a very efficient means of protection
milk
one of God's most marvelous provisions for young mammals
mammary glands
female mammals have been provided w/ special glands which produce milk only as long as the young are nursing & need the milk
marsupials
give birth to live offspring which spend very little time inside the mother's pouch, finish developing in a special pouch
rodents
the largest group of mammals, the gnawing mammals
mice
the smallest rodents
capybaras
the largest rodents
herbivores
all rodents plant eaters
incisors
front teeth
domestic animals
animals that have been tamed & raised for man's use
rabbit
an animal which's mistaken for a rodent, have 2 small incisors just behind their upper incisors
bubonic plague
in the 1300s to 1600s, over 60 million ppl throughout Europe died from a disease
nocturnal
active only at night
giant anteater, aardvark, & pangolin
animals w/ a keen sense of smell & long, sticky tongues to catch & eat ants
insetivores
inset-eating animals w/ tiny, sharp teeth to aid them in eating the insects which make up their diet
mole
animal spends most all of its time underground
hedgehogs
spine-covered creatures
bats
the only mammals that fly, "home in" on flying insects by emitting high-pitched sounds & then using their large ears to detect the echoes which bounce from the insects
echidnas
an egg-laying mammal w/ short spines
platypus & echidna
the world's only egg-laying mammals
distinctive bill
one of the platypus's most useful pieces of equipment
carnivores
flesh eaters
incisors
front teeth used for snipping & biting
canines
fangs, called cuspids in man used for stabbing & tearing
premolars
bicuspids used for crushing
molars
used for crushing & grinding
canines
dogs, domestic or wild
intelligence
the ability to learn a behavior pattern
instinct
an inherited behavior pattern, one w/ which the animal is born
guard hairs
stiffer hairs that protect the undercoat & give the coat shape & texture
packs
wolves travel & live in ? ranging in size from 8 to 20 members, usually all members of one family led by a dominant male
territory
wolve pack hunts & lives together in a specific area
clan
coyotes live in a small family group, which usually consists of a male, female, & pups plus a single young coyote, or nanny
scavengers
coyotes, animals which eat other animals which have already died
red foxes
prized for their fur & hunted for sports bc they're very cunning in avoiding being captured
arctic fox
cat-sized, valued for its fur, which is white in the winter when snow covers the land; its fur turns grey in the summer
felines
cats
eyeshine
in order to help cats hunt better & see better in the dark, God put inside the back of their eyes a special mirror like structure which reflects light & produces the glow
whiskers
sensitive organs that help them determine whether they can pass through narrow openings to sneak up on their prey
rough tongue
used for grooming & licking meat from the bone
padded feet
used for walking quietly
retractile front claws
they cna be pulled back into a protective space when not in use to prevent them from wearing out
stalk
sneak up on
cat
the only domestic animal that isn't a social animal
tiger
the longest cat
lion
king of the beasts
prides
lions live in family groups
mane
the lion is the only cat w/ a ? & a tuft of fur at the end of its tail
jaguar
the larges cat in the Americas
leopard
very stong, spotted cat of Africa & Asia
black panthers
black leopards
cougar
also called puma, panther, & mountain lion; known as "ghost of the wilderness"
cheetah
the fastest land animal on earth
lynx & bobcat
the most common North American wild cats
weasels
fur changes colors w/ the seasons
musk
the distinct odor of the skunk
pelts
skins
primates
animals noted for their highly developed nervous systems & brains, 5 fingers, hands designed for grasping things, nails instead of claws
apes
primates w/o tails
silverbacks
older male gorillas w/ gray hair on their backs
have tails
how monkeys dif from apes
spider monkey
one of the largest of the New World monkeys, has a tail which is as sensitive as a person's fingertips
capuchin
New World monkey trained to help ppl whose arms & legs are paralyzed
rhesus monkey
many valuable medical discoveries have been made by using ? as research animals
Rh factor
a component in the monkeys' blood which is also in human blood named after the rhesus monkey
hoof
tip of each horse's toe bone is protected
frog
a horse has a padded cushion on the bottom of its foot
foal
a newborn horse
mare
mother horse
stallion
father horse
selective breeding
practice of choosing an animal's parents so that the baby'll have the desired characteristics
uterus or womb
the mother carries the tiny developing horse in a specially prepared place in her abdomen until its ready to born
colt
male horse
filly
female horse
mule
cross between a male donkey & a female horse
ruminants
most cloven-hoofed animals which chew the cud
cud
food formed into balls
bovids
they've been some of hte most important animals for man's use
about 1/2
amount of meat comes from cattle
bighorn
one of the more than 30 kinds of mountain-dwelling sheep
moose
the largest deer
horns
found primarily on sheep & cattle; made of core of hollow bone covered by horn, not shed each other
antlers
solid bone; members of the deer family are the only animals w/ these; fall off
Grenfell of Labrador
reindeer experiment
balance of nature
God's care in nature as an amazing design
extinct
animal species no longer exists
endangered species
animal's in danger of becoming extinct & often protected by laws designed to prevent the animal's destruction