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Sociology Chapter 4-6 Terms and Questions
Terms in this set (74)
Based on income, level of education and occupation. People who have the similar income and education and work at jobs that have comparable prestige.
Varying positions that we all hold, like friend, brother, sister, student, employee, daughter, or son simultaneously. Our statues guide our behaviors as we shift back and forth between these positions.
Usually our statues fit together nicely, but sometimes they don't. When a mismatch occurs its know as......
Is involuntary, you inherit it, like your sex or race.
Is voluntary and something you earn like a degree, or a criminal record.
Signs that identify our status like a badge, Greek letters, wedding ring, uniforms, cars, and clothes.
But there is one status that cuts across all other statuses and maybe how you are primarily viewed and that is a.......
The position that someone occupies in a social group.
Are the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status.
Made up of people who interact on a regular basis with one another. To be apart of a group you must yield your right to make certain decisions about your behavior.
Have been organized so society may meet our basic needs. There are nine social institutions:
1. Family- regulates production, socialize and protect kids.
2. Religion- provides meaning and helps to with death and loss.
3. Education- transmits knowledge and skills.
4. Economics- produce and distribute its goods.
5. Medicine- heal sick and injured and care for the dying.
6. Politics- allocates power, an authority to ensure order.
7. Law- maintain social order.
8. Science- master the environment.
9. Military- protect and support national contracts.
Degree to which people or society feel united.
People who perform similar tasks develop a shared consciousness and share values and have social bonds.
Is based on interdependence on one another. Because we need one another this creates a different type of unity. Modern societies are held together by this, which allows us to tolerate one another's differences and function as a whole.
Is a term used for an imitate community where everyone knows everyone else and people share a sense of "togetherness".
Defines a society that is characterized by impersonal formal interactions, highlighted by anonymous association and short term contracts. People are motivated by self interest and individual accomplishment.
Assumptions we make about what we think people are like. (Erroneous assumptions based on distorted views.)
A way that social life is analyzed as though it were a play unfolding on stage and it can be used to analyze our social behavior.
It is our effort to create and manage the impressions that others have of us. There are 2 types:
1. Front stage- is where we perform and deliver our lines. when we speak in class or stop to interact with someone walking across campus.
2. Back stage- is where we can relax and stop worrying about the image that we attempt to project socially.
Is how you perform your role. Everyone has their own style.
Things within the social environment that we use to communicate information about ourselves to others. 3 types:
1. Social Setting- where acting unfolds-where you interact with others-it contains scenery.
2. Appearance- the props we use, how we decorate ourselves.
3. Manner- the attitude we project when we perform our role.
Face Saving Behavior
Techniques used to salvage a performance that has gone wrong.
How we use background assumptions to make sense out of life.
Deeply embedded in our understanding of how the world works and is our frame of reference for how people should act.
If people define situations as real they are real in their consequences.
Social Construction of Reality
The assumption that allow us to define or redefine what is real. It allows us to define our reality.
1. Select a topic- choose something that interests you.
2. Define the problem- what do you wish to learn. Develop a question.
3. Review the literature- what has been done previously? what do we already know?
4. Formulate the hypothesis- what you expect to find. the relationship between and among variables. (requires an operational definition. a measureable way to look at variables.)
5. Choose the research method- one that best lends itself to what you wish to study. you will choose from 6 possible ways to collect data.
6. Collect data- look for validity and reliability.
7. Analyze the data- make sense of what you found.
8. Share the results- add to the body of knowledge.
A statement of how variables are expected to relate to one another, often according to predictions from a theory.
Different researchers replicating your study will have the same results.
Measures what it is suppose to measure.
The way in which a researcher measures a variable.
No underlying 3rd variable can be present.
Variable that is manipulated and causes a change in another variable called the dependent variable.
Variable that is changed by the independent variable. (It depends on the IV)
Receives or is exposed to the independent variable.
Is not exposed.
Good example of the presence of a spurious correlation. Western Electric Company in Chicago conducted a study to determine the effect of lighting on productivity.
Their hypothesis was: well lit work environments would increase productivity.
*Increased lighting- independent variable
*Productivity- dependent variable
Outcome- women studied increased productivity regardless of lighting.
Men studied- decreased productivity regardless of lighting changes.
Everyone has an equal chance of being chosen to participate.
A target group to be studied.
Respondents may answer differently, give socially acceptable answers or try to please interviewer.
Questions that respondents answer in their own words.
Questions that are followed by a list of possible answers to be selected by the respondent.
A feeling of trust between researchers and the people they are studying.
Participation Observation (Field Study)
Researchers participates in the research setting and observes. Difficult to generalize findings back to all such groups. Your presence can influence the results- people reacting to your presence.
The extent to which the findings from one group (or sample) can be generalized or applied to other groups (or populations).
The analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers.
Observe people's behavior and not let them know.
Ethics In Research
Ethical practices in research are a must.
Informed consent- must know the risks involved and be given the freedom to end participation at any time.
Not the case in the past.
Humphries Tea Room Study
Humphrey- conducting research on public bathroom behavior across from the university where he was working on his PhD.
Acted as "watched queen" and observed men enter public restrooms for brief anonymous sexual interactions.
Recorded license plate numbers. Had friend run them. Collected names, addresses, etc.
University conducted "healthy study".
Humphrey went to homes of these men and gathered detailed personal information through the health study.
After publishing findings- social scientist accused him of unethical research.
Placed men in jeopardy personally and professionally. Never got informed consent. Misrepresented himself and his purpose.
Explored under what conditions people would obey authority.
Is a group of 3. In a triad you always see coalitions forming. Two members interact leaving the 3rd member feeling excluded.
Is the smallest possible group. It is the most intense intimate of human groups. It requires both members to participate and be committed. It is the most unstable of all social groups. If interest wanes the dyad collapses.
Ways individual affects groups and the way groups influence individuals.
Characterized by intimate, long term, face to face association, and cooperation. Fundamental in defining who we are. (our family and friends)
Larger, temporary, more anonymous, formal, impersonal. Tend to break into primary groups (buffer between individual and demands of larger group)
In Groups and What they make us feel
In groups- those to which we feel loyalty.
In groups create:
- sense of loyalty
- competition of rivalries
- discrimination some times
- the view of in-group characteristics as virtuous
- opposite views of same characteristics in out-groups, rather seen as liability, flaw or vice.
Out Groups and What they make us feel
We feel antagonism toward
Are the ones in which we use as a standard by which to evaluate ourselves. They may be friends or family or a group to which we do not actually belong, but aspire to belong. They may effect how we dress, speak and present ourselves. They operate as a form of social control.
Showed cards with vertical lines and asked to match them. Out of 50 tested, one third gave in to group pressure. 40% gave wrong answers but less often and only 25% stuck to the correct answers.
Internal fractions, that act as buffer against the demands of larger group.
Group think and its dangers
When people have collective tunnel vision. Group think poses a real danger especially to government leaders surrounded by inner circle that reflects their own views, cut off from those with differing views. To prevent group think we must engage in research and give free rein to diverse opinions.
Impact group size has on our actions
As a group grows larger it becomes more stable, intensity and intimacy decreases.
The larger the group the more formal people behave.
The smaller the group the more likely someone is to step out and provide assistance.
Characteristics of Hunting and Gathering Societies
-25 to 40 people
-depend on what is provided naturally
-most equalitarian of all societies since everyone contributes equally for survival
-no one owns land or stores up material possessions
-have the most leisure time
-no rulers, make decisions collectively
-as other groups took over regions and resources these groups forced out and began to disappear
-fewer than 300 H&G groups today
Characteristics of leaders
Leader- is someone who influences that behavior and attitudes of other people.
A leader is a person who:
-most strongly represents the values of the group
-is seen as someone who can lead the group out of a crisis
-is more talkative
-expresses determine ad confidence
-tend to be taller
-better looking and (tend to make more money)
Know the different leadership styles
3 Basic Leadership Styles:
1. Authoritarian leader- leads by giving orders.
2. Democratic leader- leads by trying to reach a consensus.
3. Laissez-faire- leads by being permissive.
Know the different types of leaders
Instrumental leader- task oriented, tries to keep the group moving toward its goal.
Expressive leader- not really recognized as a leader, cracks jokes, offers sympathy, tries to life morale, increased harmony, limits conflict, and tends to be the type of leader that is most popular.
Diffusion of Responsibility
Giving help was no more their responsibilities than anyone's else's.
Are the social ties that radiate outward from the individual to others that link together.
The alignment of some members of a group against others.
Individuals who temporarily share the same physical space and have nothing else in common.
Share similar characteristics (girls with glasses).
In the USA what is defined as intimate, social, and public distances.
1. Intimate distance- 18 inches
2. Social distance- 4-12 feet
3. Public distance- 12 feet
Small World Phenomenon
Milgram wanted to know just how closely people are connected in the larger society so he set out to study what he called the small world phenomenon.
He did this by selecting 2 targets, people who will receive letters he gives to starters, who do not know these people. He asked them to send the letter to someone they knew on a first name basis that they thought might know the target.
Ultimately, his results indicated that the letters were received by the targets after an average of 6 jumps, which led to the phrase "six degrees of separation".
Attempts to replicate this study, has been unsuccessful. A number of flaws in the design has been cited.
The people participating were from a higher socio-economic grouping and in replication, only had 30% success rate, and the second effort yielded only a 5% success rate.
This may indicate that people are separated by social barriers and are less connected.
Domestication Revolution and How It Changed Society?
The fist social revolution, based on the domestication of plants and animals, which led to pastoral and horticultural societies. This helped change society because the more dependable food supply ushered in changes that touched almost every aspect of human life. Groups grew larger, they had more food than needed for survival which made it no longer necessary for everyone to work to provide food. As a result of a division of labor was created.
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