66 terms

Unit 6 Vocabulary: Human Body Systems

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Hormone
Chemical signal secreted into body fluids (mostly blood). Communicates regulatory messages inside body.
Target Cell
Cells that can respond to the hormone signal.
Endocrine System
Made up of glands which secrete hormones directly to bloodstream to be carried throughout body.
Hypothalamus
Receives sensory information from nerves and initiates endocrine response to Pituitary Gland.
(The high watchtower.)
Pituitary Gland
Made up of the anterior and posterior glands. Gets commands from the hypothalamus.
Anterior (Pituitary)
Releases MANY hormones that do MANY different things throughout the body.
Posterior (Pituitary)
Releases oxytocin and ADH.
(Note: Oxytocin is not just associated with love, etc.; see drugs.)
Positive Feedback
A control mechanism where a change in a variable triggers mechanisms that amplify the change.
Negative Feedback
Feedback that maintains a variable in a narrow range of homeostasis.
Cardiovascular System
Closed Circulatory system in humans: Heart Pumps blood to lungs and capillaries of organs/limbs.
System concerned with (more or less) oxygen distribution.
Thyroid Gland
Responsible for regulating metabolism; closely tied to the levels of dissolved solutes in the blood.

(Endocrine gland in neck consisting of two lobes that influence metabolic rate and growth.)
Hyperthyroidism
Too many thyroid hormones are released.
Hypothyroidism
Too few thyroid hormones are released.
Pineal Gland
Has nervous tissue connecting to eyes; releases melatonin to regulate biological rhythms. (e.g. sleeping)
Melatonin
Secreted at night to induce sleep.
Adrenal Gland
Endocrine glands located at top of kidneys made up of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla (respond to stress).
Adrenal Medulla
Responds to short term stress from nervous system by secreting epinephrine (AKA adrenaline) and norepinephrine.
Epinephrine
Gives body energy boost by mobilizing energy stores (break down glycogen, release fat), increase heart rate, rate at which lungs absorb oxygen, diverts blood away from digestion and toward muscles.
Adrenal Cortex
Responds to long term stress from endocrine signal (ACTH from pituitary) by secreting corticosteroids.
Corticosteroids
Causes body to increase production of glucose by breaking down muscle tissue, and direct kidneys to retain more salt to increase blood pressure.
Gastrointestinal System
Organ system that functions to ingest, digest, absorb and eliminate for an organism to take in and use nutrients..
Pancreas Gland
Gland that performs both endocrine and exocrine functions for digestion and blood glucose regulation.
Insulin
Secreted by pancreas beta cells, causes body cells to take in glucose from blood and liver cells store excess glucose as glycogen.
Glucagon
Secreted by pancreas alpha cells, causes liver cells to break down glycogen into glucose to raise blood glucose back to homeostasis.
Testes
Male reproductive glands that mainly synthesize androgens, secreted as testosterone.
Androgens
Mainly male sex hormones.
Ovaries
Female reproductive glands that mainly synthesize estrogen (estradiol) and progestins (progesterone).
Estradiol
Major female sex hormone (of the estrogens).
Progesterone
Prevents changes in the uterus during menopause. (Used in menstrual cycle regulation.)
Menstrual Cycle
Time when endometrium thickens with rich blood supply, egg is released, prepares uterus for possible implantation of embryo.
(Usually lasts 28ish days in humans.)
Kidney
Functions by filtering blood through nephrons and extracting extra sugar, vitamins, proteins, other waste.
99% reabsorbed into blood.
Osmoregulation
Control of water balance in organisms living in hypertonic, hypotonic, or terrestrial environments.
Excretion
Disposal of nitrogen-containing waste products of metabolism.
Endocrine Disruptor
Chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.
(Google.)
Neuron
Cells in the nervous system.
Dendrite
Receive messages from other neurons.
Axon
Cell bodies have a long ______, allow them to send electrical signals over long distances.
Terminal
At the end of the axon; where the neuron sends a chemical signal to another neuron.
(Action!)
Neurotransmitter
Chemicals transmitted from one neuron to another at a synapse.
Peripheral Nervous System
Consisting of peripheral nerves. (Mainly non-head nerves.)
Concerned with sensory and motor functions.
Sensory Neuron
Neurons that give input.
Interneuron
A neuron that transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc.
Motor Neuron
Nerve cell forming part of a pathway along for impulses from brain/spinal cord to muscle/gland.
Sympathetic division (Fight or Flight)
During stressful neurons. Increases heart rate and breath rate. Slows digestion and reproductive structures.
Parasympathetic division (Feed and Breed)
Non-stressful times. Active during normal daily activities. Lowers heart rate and breath rate, increases digestion and reproductive structures.
Reflex
An autonomic (involuntary) response to a stimulus that helps to protect the body from injury.
(Heartbeat.)
Reaction
A reaction is a somatic (voluntary) response to a stimulus.
(You are now breathing manually.)
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrum
Largest part of the brain (in red below). Located on top of the brainstem.
Controls voluntary actions in the body (with help from the cerebellum)
Cerebral Cortex
Outer layer of gray matter of the cerebrum. Found only in mammals.
Frontal Lobe
Concerned with reasoning, motor skills, higher level cognition, and expressive language. Carries out body movements. Plans for future.
Parietal Lobe
Concerned with processes tactile sensory information such as pressure, touch, and pain.
Temporal Lobe
Involved in the senses of hearing and smell.
Occipital Lobe
Receives and interprets visual sensory messages.
Brainstem
Controls basic vital body functions. Includes Midbrain, Pons, Medulla.
Limbic System
Responds to emotion, involved in memory storage. Includes thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus.
Cerebellum
Coordinates body movements.
Corpus Callosum
Bundle of axons which connects the two hemispheres of the brain.
Psychology
Scientific study of behavior and mental function.
Short-Term Memory
Capacity for holding small amount of information in mind in active/ready state for a short time period.
Long-Term Memory
Storage of information over a long period of time.
Consolidation
Process that turns short-term to long-term memory.
Hippocampus
Structure in the brain involved in the storage of memories.
Language
Communication system that combines sounds, symbols, and gestures according to rules about sequence/meaning.
Broca's Area
Area of the brain concerned with making speech.
Wernicke's Area
Area of brain concerned with taking sounds and making linguistic meaning.