78 terms

AP Human Geography Migration and Population


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Arable Land
Fertile Land
The spatial and ecological aspects of population
Ex. Distribution, Density, Fertility, Gender, Health, Age, Mortality, Migration
Population Density
Measure of population per unit area
ex. Total population/ Total land are= people per square unit
Unevenly distributed across world
Carrying Capacity
The population beyond which a given environment cannot provide support without becoming significantly damaged
More accurate representation of overpopulation
Total population/ Total arable land area
Can be eased by increased trade for needed resources
Birth Rate
Number of births per year per thousand people
Total Fertility Rate
Average number of children born to a woman in her reproductive life time
Zero Population Rate
When there is no increase or decrease in poplation
Death Rate
The deaths per year per 1000 people
Highest Death rates: Sub-Saharan Africa
Causes of Death per region
MDCs: age induced degenerative conditions
LDCs: HIV and diarrheal diseases, Warfare, inadequate health services, age structure
Population Explosion
A dramatic increase in world population since 1900
Causes: Steep decline in death rate without decline in fertility rate
Humans have begun to reproduce at an exponential rate
Malthusian Theory
Global population grows at a faster rate (Exponential) than people are able to produce food (Linear)
Results in worldwide famine that will ultimately control population
Was Malthus Correct
Agricultural Revolution
Population should level off to 11 billion by 2100
Total Fertility Rate fallen to 2.8 and population is declining in some areas
Greater education and access to family planning
If developed countries consume at the rate they do there may not be enough resources to feed the world
Neo Malthusians
Suggest that Malthus's hypothesis may still be correct
Sustainability: Can we keep producing the way we are?- Farming practices deplete nutrients in soil, depletion of irrigation sources
Increasing Per Capita Demand: What if everyone ate as much as 1st world countries?- As 3rd countries develop their populations will demand more food
Natural Resource Depletion: What happens if we run out of other nonrenewable materials?- Depleting other resources such as timber, oil and minerals negatively effects quality of life
Population Pyramid
Percentage of the total population in fiver year age groups
Youngest at bottom oldest at top
Males on left Females on right
Length of bar represents the percentage of the total population
Dependency Ratio
The percentage of population that is either too young or too old to work compared to the working population
Too young= 0-14 years old, Too old= over 65 years old
Highest dependency ratio in Sub-Saharan Africa
USA= 50.4%
Social Consequences of Dependency Ratio
Changing roles of children/elders
Increasing "grey power"= elderly are generally conservative
Increased immigration
Senior neighborhoods
Decline of services for youth
Growth of services for elderly
Social conflict
Economic Consequences of Dependency Ratio
Increased government cost to society due to government programs and taxes
Increased economic pressure on labor force
Labor supply issues= not enough workers
Changes in employment opportunity
Economic pressure on adult children
Sex Ratio
Number of males per 100 females in the population
Developed Countries have more women than men
Asian countries have more men than women
Demographic Transition Model Stage 1
High death rates and high birth rates
Produces no long term natural increase
Hunter gathering societies
When a population has food the birth rate will increase- Usually not sustainable
High birth and death rate
Examples: A few remote groups
Reasons for change in birth rate DTM 1
Many children needed for farming. Many children die at early age. Religious/ social encouragement. No family Planning
Reasons for change in death rate DTM 1
Disease, famine, poor medical knowledge so many children die.
Demographic Transition Model Stage 2
High birth rate and rapidly falling death rates
Very high natural increase
North America and Europe enter in the 1750's- Advancements of industrial revolution increased standard of living
Latin America and Asia enter in the 1950's- Medical revolution increased health care
Examples: Egypt, Kenya, India
Reasons for change in birth rate DTM 2
Same as DTM 1 Many children needed for farming. Many children die at early age, Religious/social encouragement, no family planning.
Reasons for change in death rate DTM 2
Improvement in medical care, water supply and sanitation. Fewer children die.
Demographic Transition Model Stage 3
Death rate falls more slowly
Birth rates rapidly decline and death rates continue to decline
Rate of natural increase begins to moderate
Decision to have fewer children- live in cities reaction to decline in mortality
North America and Europe enter in early 1900's
Examples: Brazil
Reasons for change in birth rate DTM 3
Improved medical care and diet. Fewer children needed
Reasons for change in death rate DTM 3
Sames as Stage 2, Improvements in medical care, water supply and sanitation and fewer children die.
Demographic Transition Model Stage 4
Very low birth rates and death rates
Virtually no long term increases and possible decline
Characterized by zero population growth
Social Customs cause shift- increasing status of women, more likely to use birth control
Examples: USA, Japan, France, UK
Reasons for change in birth rate DTM 4
Family Planning, Good health, improving status of women, later marriages
Reasons for change in death rate DTM 4
Good health care, reliable food supply
Demographic Transition model Stage 5
Very low birth rates, low death rates, slow decrease in Natural Increase
Examples: Germany
Have few women in child bearing years
Problems: Few young people to support the elderly population
Not enough workers to stimulate the economy
Reasons for change in birth rate DTM 5
Same as Stage 4, Family Planning, good health, improving status of women later marriages
Reasons for change in death rate DTM 5
Good health care, reliable food supply
reasons for lowering of birth rates
Education and health care- better education, later marriages and survival of more infants
Contraception: Especially in Asian countries, Sub-Saharan Africa has very little access to contraceptives, religion inhibits
Population Control
Regulating population of a place by artificial means
Epidemiological Transition
The branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution and control of diseases
For each stage of model there are specific health threats
Geographer trace these on the ETM
Stage 1 ETM
Infectious and parasitic diseases are main cause of death
Black Death, cholera, malaria, HIV/AIDS
Stage 2 ETM
Receding Pandemics
Improved sanitation, nutrition and medicine reduced the spread of infectious disease
Poor people compacted in cities had high death rates
Cholera, Meningitis
Stage 3 ETM
Degenerative Diseases
Chronic disorders associated with aging
Cardio vascular disease, Cancer, Type 2 Diabetes, Alzheimer's
Stage 4 ETM
Still affected by cardiovascular disease and cancer
Life expectancy is extended by medical advances
Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes
Stage 5 ETM
New Epidemic Disease
Reasons: Evolution of microbes, Poverty, Increases connections
MERSA, Malaria, Influenza
Tuberculosis, Whooping Cough, HIV/AIDS, SARA
Diseases of Poverty
Transmitted by people in close contact, usually in poor living conditions
Not confined to people living in poverty but more prevalent
Pertusis, Malaris, Diarrheal Diseases, Tuberculosis
Diseases of Affluence
Affect primarily wealthy countries due to mainly lifestyle choices and extended age
Obesity, Diabetes, alcohol and smoking, heart disease
Infant Mortality Rate
Annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age compared to total live births
Highest: Afghanistan 119.41
USA=167th, 5.86
Lowest: Monaco 1.81
Life Expectancy
Average number of years an infant can expect to live at current mortality levels
Highest: Monaco 89.63
USA: 43rd, 79.68
Lowest= Chad 49.07
Other indicators of Health
Health Expenditures
Highest Liberia 19.5 % of GDP
Lowest Qatar 1.9 % of GDP
Contraceptive Prevalence, Physicians Density, Hospital Bed Density, Drinking Water Density, Sanitation Facility Access, Children under 5 years Underweight
Human Immunodeficiency Virus- Destroys cells necessary to fight off diseases
Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome- Final stage of HIV, Die from infections that your body cannot fight
How serious is AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa?
23.5 million people in Africa
Leading cause of death in Sub Saharan Africa- 1.2 million people die a year from it
1.9 million become infected every year
Most severe in Southern Africa
Why is HIV/AIDS so widespread & deadly in Sub-Saharan Africa?
Poverty, Social Instability, Gender inequality, Sexual Violence, Rapid Urbanization, Origins, Lack of resources
Disease found in widespread area throughout multiple populations
Wearing down of tissues
Long term relocation of an individual, household or larger group to a new locale outside the country of origin
Leaving a place
Going to a new place
Internal Migration
Moving with in a place
Intervening Oppurtunity
When an opportunity presents itself along the way stopping or altering migration
Net Migration
Volume of immigrants- emigrants
Laws of Migration
Majority of migrants move a short distance
Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big city destinations
Urban residents are less likely to migrate than rural residents
Families are less likely to make international movements than young adults
Characteristics of Migrants
Most migrants are single males 25-29, Easier to move by yourself, Makes are more likely to be hired for employment, Age of employment
Gravity Model
Measure the interaction between places
Migration is directly related to population as migration to a place increases so does that place's population
Migration is inversely related to distance- as distance between two places grows, less migration will occur
Push Factor
Pull Factor
Something that makes someone want to leave a place
Something that makes someone want to go to a place
Economic conditions, political circumstances, armed conflict and civil war, environmental conditions, technological advances
Political Push Factors
Instability, Civil War, Tyrannical Leaders, Political Persecution, Violation of Human Rights
A person who has been forced to move to avoid political issues and cannot return without fear of persecution
Arab north v. Non Arab south
Non Arabs accused government of marginalizing them and took up arms against them, Government responded by ethnic cleansing and releasing the Janjaweed
400,00 dead and 2.5 million displaced
Controlled by Russia until 1989
Al-Qaeda lead a jihad against the atheist communists
1996 Taliban seized control over Afghanistan
Following the Sept 11th attacks, NATO hoped to dismantle Al-Qaeda and overthrow the Taliban
Environmental Push/Pull factors
Water is the most important factor- too much in flood zones, too little in places where there is desertification
Disasters force people to move sometimes permanently, move to better climates
Areas affected by drought
Australia, India, Sahel in Africa- process of desertification
Great Plains, caused by combination of nature and human factors
Drought in India, Great Plains,
Economic Push and Pull Factors
Most people migrate for economic reasons
Wages, opportunity, specialization, changes over time. USA, Canada and W Europe are destinations
17th and 18th Centuries migration to the US
Europe( Mostly Great Britain)
Moved during colonization of New World
Push Factors- Over population, little economic opportunity and religious persecution
Pull Factors- Desire for gold and silver, Land ownership, religious/political freedom
Africa- forced to migrate to New World as slaves
Mid 19th to Early 20th Century migration to the US
1840's and 1850's
Ireland and Germany- Economic conditions, political unrest, potato famine
China- escape consequences of Opium War, Mining and railroad building

Scandinavia- Overpopulation, lack of opportunity

Southern and Eastern Europe- Overpopulation, Political and religious persecution, Lack of opportunity
Late 20th to Early 21st migration to the US
Most settle in urban areas in NY, NJ, California, Florida, or Texas
Asia- China, the Philippines, India and Vietnam
Overpopulation, lack of opportunity
Latin America- Mexico, lack of opportunity, over population, guest worker policies, and chain migration
Interregional Migration in USA
Colonists prevented from settling West of Appalachians
After Revolution, US acquires land up to Mississippi
Louisiana Purchase 1803, Gold Rush 1849, Homestead Act 1862, Southward since 1950
20th c. African American Migration
Moved in define patterns, escape racial discrimination, decline of sharecropping= tenant allows use of land but in return for some of crops, Great Migration, Exodusters
Non-US Interregional Migration
Russia- Encourage factories in Siberia
Brazil- movement for work towards cities
Indonesia- Help even out population
Europe- Rural to Urban Area
India- Limit migration between regions
Intraregional Migration
Rural to Urban- Seeking economic opportunity
Urban to Suburban- Middle class flight, basic services, non basic services
Counter Urbanization
Urban to rural migration
Enticed by lifestyle, retire
Cyclical Movement
Leads to chain migration
Labor workers move in search of job for a Short period and then return home
Called migrant workers
Guest worker programs
Pros- Remittances, supply of labor
Cons- Crime, unemployment, social welfare burden, loss of skilled workers
Formal Obstacles for Immigration
Formal policies to control the number of foreigners arriving to work
Chinese Exclusion Act 1882
Quota Laws- Quota Act of 1921, National Origins Act of 1924, 1965, 1978 and 1920
Guest work programs
Informal Obstacles to Immigration
Inspection process- medical and intelligence tests
Tenement Buildings
Cultural Conflict
Economic Concerns
Nativism- Know nothing party