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auguste comte

credited as the founder of sociology
- scientific method should be applied to study of psychology (positivism)

herbert spencer

"second founder of sociology"
- society should not guide social reform
- societies go through natural evolution
- "survival of the fittest" (idea called social darwinism)

karl marx

believed people should try to change society
- bourgeoisie and proletariat
- eventually, workers will revolt and become one classless society
- conflict theory

emile durkheim

university of bordeaux awarded him first academic appointment in sociology
- studied suicide rates
- identified social integration as a key social factor in suicide


the capitalists; those who own the capital, land, factories, and machines... naturally enemy to the proletariat (according to marx)


the exploited workers, who do not own the means of production... natural enemy to the bourgeoisie (according to marx)

social integration

the degree to which people are tied to their social group

max weber

- believed religion (not economics) was the central force in social change
- the protestant ethic gave rise to spirit of capitalism
- sociology should be "value free"
- accurately predicted the bureaucracy that we live with today

social factors

durkheim concluded that ________ __________ underlie suicide, which is why a group's rate remains fairly constant year after year

protestant ethic capitalism

the _______ ______:
max weber's term to describe the belief that financial success was the blessing that indicated that God was on their side; so protestants began living frugal lives saving their money and investing to make more; this brought about the birth of ___________


the repetition of a study in order to test its findings


- German word meaning "to understand"
- "to grasp by insight"
- weber's explanation that the best interpreter of human behavior is someone who "has been there"

subjective meanings

how people interpret their situation in life, the meanings they give their own behavior

social facts

durkheim's term for a group's patterns of behavior

w.e.b. du bois

- first african american to earn a doctorate at harvard
- studied and published books on relations between african americans and whites
- social reformer
- embraced revolutionary marxism

jane addams

- recipient of the nobel peace prize
- worked on behalf of poor immigrants
- found hull house with ellen g. starr
- leader in women's rights and the peace movement of WWI

basic (or pure) sociology

sociological research for the purpose of making discoveries about life in human groups, not for making changes in those groups

applied sociology

the use of sociology to solve problems- from the micro level of family relationships to the macro level of global pollution

c. wright mills

controversial figure in sociology because of his analysis of the role of the power elite in u.s. society
- urged sociologists to get back to social reform (rather than basic sociology)

george herbert mead

- one of the founders of symbolic interactionism
- taught at the university of chicago

symbolic interactionism

a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another

emile durkheim

*- lived during the results of the industrial revolution in europe
- did first research on suicide groups
- concluded that people who had weak social bonds were more likely to commit suicide

auguste comte

- frenchman, coined the term "sociology"
- witnessed the industrial revolution in paris
- "what holds society together?"

social bonds unmarried rural

factors that make someone more likely to commit suicide:
1) weak ______ ______
2) white protestant males
3) __________
4) _______ as opposed to city life
5) military men more likely

john calvin

- lived in france
- devout, wanted to break away from catholic church
- (1818-1864)

martin luther

- german, leader of protestant reformation
- his people were very devout and hard working (deferred gratification)
- wanted a sign from God that they were going to heaven
- taught predestination, you were "elected" or "chosen" for heaven
- having wealth was this sign


the scientific study of human behavior and groups

social institutions

family, religion, economy, politics, education, health care, military, mass media are examples of _______ _______.
(functionalist perspective states that all these serve a purpose in society)

social institutions

- traditional, slow to change, do not change in isolation (they are all interdependent)
- functionalist perspective states that all these serve a purpose in society

industrial revolution protestant reformation french revolution

4 events that brought the need to study sociology:
1. __________ ________ (1850s)
2. __________ _________ (religion)
3. _________ _________
4. imperialism

industrial revolution

- movement of peasants to the cities
- social classes
- trade groups
- political systems
- illness
- poor working conditions

french revolution

monarchy to democracy, the divine right to rule


europe and great britain conquered other parts of the world

industrial revolution

___________ ________ in u.s.:
post WWI, 1920s
- men from farms went to fight war in europe, saw industrialization and didn't want to go back to farms


university of ______ (1850)
- first academic discipline of sociology


university of ________
- first sociology degree, sociology really took off here

crime immigration migration

in the 1920s, ______ was a major area of study in sociology... as well as _______ and ______ (southerners moving north for jobs)


in the 1950s, sociology came to a standstill because of _________


sociology revival
- civil rights
- vietnam
- hippies
- sexual revolution


- women's movement
- women in the workforce, more careers
- more restaurants, consumerism
- women less likely to stay in bad marriages
- divorce rate increase

macro social institutions organisms

the functionalist perspective:
- ______ level
- looks at society from a traditionalist viewpoint
- oldest perspective
- says that _______ ______ have a function and a purpose (and when they meet these, there is balance, order, stability)
- spencer compared societies to living _______
(evolved from simple to complex)

herbert spencer

- british
- paralleled societies to living organisms
(they evolve from simple to complex)

procreation overpopulation

function = ___________
dysfunction = ___________


______ function:
intended purpose of the institution


______ function:
unintended, byproduct

manifest latent

*ex: education
______ function: to teach skills for productivity
______ function: school is a babysitting function

karl marx

the conflict perspective:
- rooted in _____ _____'s theory of class conflict
- class conflict = upperclass exploiting and oppressing the lowerclass

karl marx

- grew up in germany, was exiled
- lived in england
- saw the ending of the landowners and peasants feudal system, beginning of ind. revolution
- critical of capitalism because he felt like it took advantage of the worker


(last/top level in marx's steps to utopia theory)
- one social class
- no class conflict
- utopia (perfect society)


(intermediate/second level in marx's steps to utopia theory)
- govt. or "state" makes the economic decisions


(first level in marx's steps to utopia theory)
- individuals can own the profit
- marx believed the workers could realize they were being oppressed and overthrow the landowners/factory-owners and move to socialism


auguste comte, herbert spencer, emile durkheim, robert merton, and max weber were are scholars who contributed to the idea of ______________

harriet martineau

- from england
- conducted a two year study of u.s. customs
- translated comte's work from French to English

robert merton

-major proponent of functionalism
- used the term functions to refer to the beneficial consequences of people's actions
- functions help keep a group in balance
- dysfunctions are consequences that harm a society


__________ analysis:
an examination of large-scale patterns of society


_________ analysis:
an examination of small-scale patterns of society

micro social

symbolic interactionists usually focus on the ____ level, on _______ interaction


___________ perspective
- harriet martineau- translated comte's work from French to English
- Jane Addams created the Hull House for women and children

charles horton cooley george herbert mead

main developers of symbolic interactionism:
_______ _______ ______ and _______ _____ _______

symbolic interactionist

_________ _________ perspective:
- study at the micro level
- looks at society in small groups, day to day basis
- looks at the way we interact with symbols in our lives and how we interpret these symbols
- their meaning needs to be agreed upon by the group

ethnomethodology dramaturgy

subsets of the symbolic interactionist perspective:
______________ and ___________


*you understand behaviors/rules only when they're broken; the study of how people use background assumptions to make sense out of life


*an approach, pioneered by erving goffman, in which social life is analyzed in terms of drama or the stage
(we become actors, our clothes are costumes, conversations are scripts, exits, cues)

george herbert mead

- sociologist from the university of chicago
- we analyze how social life depends on the way we define ourselves and others
- we study face to face interaction
- we analyze symbols and agree on the meaning


the breaking down of national boundaries because of advances in communications, trade, and travel

make discoveries

the purpose of basic (or pure) sociology is to _____ _______

solve problems

applied sociology is the use of sociology to _____ ______


the language, beliefs, values, norms, and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next


anything people come together collectively and share, *people must agree on the meaning; can separate one group from all other groups

material culture

the tangible objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry

nonmaterial culture

a group's ways of thinking (including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world) and doing (its common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction)
i.e the american dream, freedom, success, family

culture shock

the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life

high culture

the arts (ballet, symphony, lincoln center, etc.) different from just culture


the use of one's own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors

william sumner

"one's own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it."
- developed the concept of ethnocentrism

cultural relativism

not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms
- awareness that there are other cultures besides your own

culturally deprived

one may not have the dominant culture, or high culture, but no one is __________ _________

folk culture

referred to as "low brow" culture; differences on things such as music

popular culture

whatever's in the media, may or may not have sustaining power; movie stars, tv shows


encourages respect and appreciation for cultural differences; a philosophy or political policy that permits or encourages ethnic differences


_______ allows culture to exist


symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought

facial expressions

_________ ____________ are universal
(except for the wink, which has different connotations)

sapir-whorf hypothesis

states that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving


the standards by which people define what desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly


expectations, or rules of behavior, that reflect and enforce behavior


either expressions of approval given to people for upholding norms or expressions of disapproval for violating them


norms that are not strictly enforced; "the way of the folk,"
- can change over time
- can vary from culture to culture
- if you violate one, there usually isn't punishment
- ordinary, day to day behavior
(wearing shoes that match, personal hygiene, using silverware)


more strongly held norms, sometimes involve laws like murder, incest
- if you break one, there are sanctions/punishments

cultural lag

ogburn's term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations
- one societal institution changes and the others adjust
- ex: school year based on agrarian calendar


the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world

counterculture (or deviant subculture)

a group whose values, beliefs, norms, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
- outside the dominant culture (ex: hippies in the '60s)

pluralistic society

a society made up of many different groups, with contrasting values and orientations to life
(ex: the u.s.)


expectation to give up cultural identity to take on the dominant culture


retaining original culture while joining the dominant culture

william ogburn

coined the term "cultural lag"


_______ allows human experience to be goal-directed, cooperative, and cumulative. it also lets humans move beyond the present and share a past, future, and other common perspectives

george herbert mead

- taught at the university of chicago
- pointed out how important play is as we develop a "self"
- we learn to take role of the other (put ourself in someone else's shoes)
- "generalized other" = our perception of how people in general think of us

jean piaget

- studied the mind and how we learn to reason
- swiss psychologist
- said that the natural learning process has four stages
- "children... begin with the concrete and move to the abstract"

charles horton cooley

- symbolic interactionist
- taught at university of michigan
- "self" is part of how society makes us human
- our sense of self develops from interaction with others
- "looking-glass self"

sigmund freud

- founded psychoanalysis
- personality consists of 3 elements: id, ego, superego


freud's term for our inborn basic drives; cause us to seek self-gratification


freud's term for a balancing force between the id and the demands of society


a technique for treating emotional problems through long-term exploration of the subconscious mind


freud's term for the conscience; the internalized norms and values of our social groups (culture within us)

lawrence kohlberg

- psychologist
- concluded that we go through a sequence of stages as we develop morality (or levels?)

sensorimotor stage

understanding is limited to direct contact:
touch, sight, feeling; develops an understanding through the senses
(piaget; cognitive development)

preoperational stage

develop the ability to use symbols
put names with objects, identifying objects
(piaget; cognitive development)

concrete operational stage

learning very literal things, right and wrong answers
able to play the role of the other
(piaget; cognitive development)

formal operational stage

abstract thinking, concepts
understanding because they can reason it
(piaget; cognitive development)

lawrence kohlberg's moral levels

levels 1 & 2: 0-11
- reward and punishment

levels 3 & 4: early teens
- want to develop good interpersonal relationships, people to think well of you

levels 5 & 6: adulthood
- right from wrong, moral decisions based on ability to reason, not influenced by what others think, make a moral decision based on principles that have to do with justice

carol gilligan

- decided to find out if there were differences in how men and women looked at morality
- women evaluate morality on personal relationships
(proven wrong, no longer supports this view)

paul ekman

- studied emotions in several countries
- everyone has six basic emotions
- we all show the same facial expressions

melissa milkie

- studied behavior of junior high boys

melvin kohn

concluded that careers of parents affect upbringing of children:
- working class parents- mainly concerned with their kids staying out of trouble
discipline = physical punishment
- middle class concern- developing kid's curiosity, self-expression, and self control
discipline = reasoning

patricia and peter adler

- observed how elementary school children separate themselves by sex and develop separate gender worlds

erving goffman

coined term "total institution" to refer to a place in which people are cut off from the rest of society and where they come under almost total control of the officials in charge


the process by which people learn the characteristics of their group- the behaviors, knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, norms, and other orientations thought appropriate for them


- ongoing process of learning norms and cultures of society, learning to be full participants of society


lack of socialization case:
- 1930s
- born to unmarried mother, grandfather embarrassed
- mother put her in an attic
- discovered at age 6
- couldn't walk, talk, was afraid of people, didn't have human responsiveness
- died at age 10.5 of blood disorder


lack of socialization case:
- discovered in 1938 in iowa
- born to unmarried, deaf/mute mother
- grandfather was embarrassed, locked them in a small room
- communicated with mother with hand gestures
- discovered at age 6.5
- caught up with walking and talking in a couple of years, mainstreamed
- difference from other = had a mother, human interaction


lack of socialization case:
- born in 1957, california
- unwanted pregnancy; mom was 37 and dad was 57
- locked away for 13.5 years
- mother and father fought, mother sought public assistance
- couldn't walk or talk, wild look about her
- was strapped to a "potty-seat," tied to bed at night
- learned to speak and walk (with a jerky motion)
- called feral because of noises like barking
- didn't understand word order or grammar
- language was garbled
- adopted by another family, then guardianship went back to mother who filed charges against UCLA

emperor frederick II

- wanted to find out what speech or language people innately had (superior language)
- had foster mothers care for the infants and feed them and take car of them, the mothers were not to speak to them and were not to be influenced by speech
- children died due to lack of interaction (around age 2)


skills are a result of the __________ process

critical period of development

all of these children missed the ______________; could never fully develop


parents' ________ influence how they discipline their children

neighborhood day care peer group

agents that socialize:
_____ _____
______ _______
workplace (later in life)
mass media


gives a sense of identity, morality, allowed immigrants to assimilate, socializing
(one of the agents that socialize)

corridor curriculum

what children learn "from the hallway"

hidden curriculum

how schools/teachers affect socialization

anticipatory socialization

you learn to play your role before you assume it (like in the workplace)

mass media

the underly of all other agents that socialize


___________ theorists say people develop in a series of stages and sequences....
you complete the stage you are in before you move on to the next one


term for when people stay in a developmental stage for too long

freud's oral stage

stimulus and pleasure is in and around the mouth
(nursing, sucking, food, putting things in mouth, teething)

freud's anal stage

potty training period, children have pleasure in and around the anus, first time child has control over their own body

freud's phallic stage

has sexual feelings for the opposite-sexed parent:
"electra complex" for girls
"oedipus complex" for boys

freud's latency stage

develops strong same-gender relationships:
boys want to play with boys and girls want to play with girls
boy/girl segregation

freud's genital stage

opposite-sexed friendships and relationships

cognitive psychosexual moral

piaget- ___________ development stages
freud- ___________ development stages
kohlberg- ________ levels

take an active role

we should ____________ in our socialization process

emile durkheim

- interested in how societies manage to have social integration
- mechanical solidarity (unity, similar tasks)
- organic solidarity (dependence on others to fulfill their jobs)

ferdinand tonnies

- "gemeinschaft" or intimate community
- "gesellschaft" or impersonal association
- our lives no longer center on intimate ties with families and friends

erving goffman

- recast "dramaturgy" into a sociological term
- said that our everyday life involves playing our assigned roles

helen ebaugh

nun turned sociologist
studied "role exit"

harold garfinkel

founder of ethnomethodology
studied background assumptions

social structure

rules that guide how you act
culture is very important in your ________ _________
religion, language, and social class are also critical

social status

your placement or ranking in society


____________ status:
involuntary, born at birth
(gender, race/ethnicity, your parents)

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