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BSC1005L FINAL FSU
Terms in this set (195)
Any information gathered through at least one of your senses.
Assumption that is based on observations and past experiences
Tentative, testable explanation for a narrow set of phenomena. Needs to have predictive power. Ex: mimicry of poisonous animals & natural selection
powerful explanation of wide range of phenomena. Must survive rigorous testing and have a lot of evidence to support it.
Collected during experiments, but not alone considered evidence
product of interpretation of the data- justification for whether the hypothesis is supported or not supported.
Consistency, observable, natural, predictable, testability, tentative
6 criteria to identify science
Observations that are confirmed repeatedly
Expected outcome based on the hypothesis. Usually when you're manipulating in the natural world
Answer to the guiding question
Analysis of data you collected and your interpretation of the analysis
Explains why the evidence matters to you claim-- why does your evidence support your claim?
A stable internal environment despite changes in the external environment
the network that coordinates and controls life functions
This response is your body's reaction to stress. Activated by adrenaline(epinephrine) and norepinephrine.
Central Nervous system (CNS)
consists of the brain and spinal cord
connects all our organ systems
Peripheral Nervous system (PNS)
all the nervous tissue outside the CNS, collecting sensory information and transmitting instructions from the CNS throughout the body
Somatic Nervous System
Voluntary (controls conscious actions like walking)
Autonomic Nervous System
Controls involuntary actions that you don't have to consistently think about (heart muscle contractions). Contains parasympathetic (rest and digest) and sympathetic (fight or flight) neurons
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Stimulates activities that conserve energy such as stimulating digestion and decreasing breathing rate by narrowing air passages. "rest and digest" response
Sympathetic Nervous system
Prepares the body for energy-consuming activities by inhibiting digestion and increasing breathing rate by widening air passages. "fight or flight" reponse.
convey information from both inside and outside the body to the CNS (ex: receptors in the eyes and skin) (sensory receptors--> CNS)
Control contraction of skeletal muscle in response to instructions from the CNS. (CNS--> motor)
Specialized cells that function together to transmit information throughout the body
Some animals have this if they lack a defined control center (such as jellyfish). These are made up of sensory and motor neurons that control muscles so they respond to stimuli with appropriate behaviors
Head of the body
Sprout smaller nerves in a simpler version of the PNS
Sense organs concentrated at the anterior end
oxygen in the air moves directly into the skin, and CO2 moves directly out through this process
projection that female crickets have through which eggs are laid
When a system (like the circulatory system of insects) lacks a heart and closed blood vessels for fluid to travel through. Role of O2 circulation fulfilled by the unique tracheal system
DNA, Ribosomes, Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane
4 basic components of ALL cells
Directs protein production and passes genes down through generations. Double helix of nucleic acid
double layer with embedded proteins that is composed of phosphates and lipids (phospholipid bilayer) that surrounds the cell and regulates the traffic of molecules between the cell and its surroundings.
Gelatinous and aqueous interior of all cells
Build the proteins according to the instructions from the DNA
An example of homeostasis in which you have a steady internal temperature regardless of your surroundings and the surrounding temerature
Involved in homeostasis; brain activates your cooling mechanisms via this.
Involved in homeostasis, blood vessels dilate near your skin to release heat, and sweat is produced to cool the body
Forms and secretes urine while regulating the amount of water in body fluids
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
If you're dehydrated, your brain sends signals through your nervous system that increases levels of this hormone. Signals your kidneys to reabsorb water back into your body, making your urine darker.
Alcohol, coffee, inhibit release of ADH resulting in excessive urinary water loss because the brain can't signal the kidneys to reabsorb water.
Result of the process shuts that process down, reverse of what started. Examples: thermoregulation, homeostasis in the urinary system- result of the process inhibits that same process. Most common mechanism
Result of the process intensifies the same process. Ex: labor, blood clots, vomiting; labor-- chemical signals in body cause muscles of uterus to conract, contractions stimulate more chemicals to be released, causing more contractions. Continues until the result is achieved (birth).
Chemicals relaying messages to the next neuron or other cell type
Neurotransmitters that block nerve impulses
Neurotransmitters that amplify nerve impulses
Stimulate the NS by either enhancing the effect of an excitatory NT or blocking the effect of an inhibitory NT
Depresss the NS by either blocking the effect of an excitatory NT or enhancing the effect of an inhibitory NT
induce sleep or drowsiness by binding to NTs that normally receive body's natural pain-relieving substances (endogenous opiates) .
Greatly change perception of environment by increasing the amount of NTs released in particular areas of the brain
Eggs and sperm
Parent cell divides twice, produces 4 daughter cells, each of which is haploid (contains only one set of chromosomes).
4 haploid daughter cells
during meiosis, when a a parent cell divides twice, the chromosomes double once, and produce _______.
has two sets of chromosomes
contains only one set of chromosomes
Diploid cell resulting from 2 haploid gametes dusing together
During meiosis, homologous pairs can line up on either side of the plane of cell division
Recombination (crossing over)
During meiosis, the maternal chromosome may exchange some genetic material with the paternal chromosome within a homologous pair, creating chromosomes that are not exact copies of those in the original parent cell
Series of rapid cell divisions in meiosis
dividing zygote. During cell divisions, the total volume remains unchanged, but the number of cells within it increases.
When the cell doubles its chromosomes and then separates the two copies into two separate nuclei. Produces two daughter cells that are exact copies of the parent cell. Function is to form somatic cells, which are reproduced during development, growth, cell replacement, regeneration, and asexual reproduction
Produces two daughter cells genetically identical to the parent
Human caused, like runoff of pollutants into the near shore environment, can endanger coastal processes like fertilization of sea urchins
Human reproductive system
evolved in conjunction with order systems like the endocrine system, to be very successful in reproducing through internal fertilization in order to pass on genetic material (DNA)
production of gametes; takes two forms: spermatogenesis and oogenesis
type of gametogenesis that takes place in the male testes and results in the production of 4 sperm from one spermatocyte, Each meiotic division in this is an even division of the parent cell!, negative feedback loop!
takes place in the female ovaries and results in the production of one egg and three polar bodies from one oocyte. Each meiotic division in this is an uneven division of the parent cell- one large egg receives most of the volume and the rest goes to tiny polar bodies.
After this, the egg must be fertilized within 24 hours, or else it will disintegrate
Sperm can remain viable here up to around 72 hours, and if one sperm successfully fertilizes the egg, each gamete contributes half of its genetic info to the new individual's DNA
Travels down the oviduct, dividing by mitosis as it travels, and becomes implanted in the endometrium within 6 days, where it then continues to develop for 9 months until the fetus is ready to survive independently
the first trimester, when most of the development of the offspring's organ systems takes plae
Drugs or pollutants that affect development. During the first trimester, the offspring is particularly vulnerable to this. Ex: tobacco, alcohol, pesticides, caffeine, aspirin
methods of preventing pregnancy and STIs
only method of preventing pregnancy and STIs that is 100% effective! (except w/ jane the virgin)
type of contraception that prevents sperm from reaching the egg (ex: condom)
rely on knowledge of natural hormone levels during diff. phases of the reproductive cycle and gametogenesis. Designed to manipulate hormone cycles to prevent successful fertilization of an egg by a sperm
type of STI that can be treated with antibiotics
type of STI that replicates within your cells so therefore is much more difficult to treat than bacterial, and cannot be treated with antibiotics
Stimulates testes to manufacture sperm, tells brain when enough have been reproduced to stop release of sperm-producing hormones, stimulates development of male sex charactersistics
Released by hypothalamus; triggers release of fertility hormones called gonadotropins (FSH and LH). male reproductive hormone cycle!
Stimulates testes to produce testosterone
Along with testosterone, tells testes to produce sperm
FSH and Testosterone
tell testes to produce sperm
tells brain enough sperm have been produced, stopping release of sperm producing hormones
Triggers development of primary oocyte (Female reproductive hormone cycle)
signals ovulation (release of egg from the follicle)
Progesterone and estrogen
Promotes thickening of endometrium; low levels trigger menstruation, high levels inhibit brain from releasing FSH (on diagram)
Maintains secretion of progesterone and estrogen so endometrium stays intact
each contains one very long DNA strand, typically bearing thousands of genes. each is made up of chromatin, a combo of protein molecules (called histones) and DNA
Combo of DNA and Protein molecules (histones) in your chromosomes
protein molecules that help organize chromatin and control the expression of its genes
when your genes are turned on
when your genes are turned off
When your DNA is copied when your cells prepare to divide. the chromatin fibers coil up, forming compact chromosomes.
each chromosome consists of two identical ______________, the original chromosome and its copy.
if we break open the dividing cell and arrange chromosomes into pairs that match in size and pattern of gene location, we produce this display.
see these in karyotypes, carry genes controlling the same heritable traits located at the same place on the chromosome. However they may carry diff. versions of the same genes called alleles
different versions of the same genes that homologous chromosomes may carry
when an offspring has two different alleles for a gene
when an offspring has two identical alleles for a gene
A unique combination of alleles
the expression of the genotype trait
When one allele determines the individual's appearance (in a heterozygote)
In a heterozygote, when one allele has no noticeable effect on the individual's appearance
(freckles)- allele for having freckles (F) is dominant and allele for not (f) is recessive.
When an offspring has two recessive alleles (ff)
When an offspring has two dominant alleles (FF), it's phenotype is "freckles"
If an offspring has one dominant allele and one recessive allele (Ff), but the dominant takes precedence- it's phenotype is "freckles"
genes carried by either sex chromosome
Additive effects of two or more genes on a single phenotypic trait like eye color, skin color, and height for humans
disorders like cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell disease.
disorders like alzheimers and huntingtons
Sex-linked recessive alleles
lead to some conditions like red-green color-blindness and hemophilia.
An electric current repels the negatively charged DNA fragments through microscopic pored in the gel. Shorter fragments travel faster through the gel than longer, producing a "ladder" of fragments separated by size.
when two halves of genetic material in the egg and sperm unite to form your complete genome
When your cell's machinery makes a copy of the gene
your genotype determines your ____________________
group of diseases characterized by uncontrollable growth, division, and spread of abnormal cells in the body- these cells don't respond to signals to stop dividing by mitosis.
chaotic mass of cells that results from cells dividing by mitosis indefinitely
when the cells of cancer transport to all parts of the body and set up new tumors at locations far from the original one
hijack the cell machinery in order to reproduce and can therefore sometimes induce cancer
harmful environmental factors that are dangerous to your body
levels of gene expression can be detected with this.
community and the environment in which interactions take place between the biotic and abiotic elements
recycling of our plants chemicals. the chemicals change form and are recycled through interconnected cycles and processes.
involves both biotic and abiotic elements of an ecosystem; carbon compounds are formed from this. Organisms that can do this are able to trap light energy from the sun and are called primary producers
Organisms, such as plants, that are photosynthesizing and are thus able to trap light energy from the sun. Capture their carbon from this.
transfer of energy from one living organism to another
multiple feeding levels that the energy flow goes through in a healthy ecosystem.
non-photosynthesizing organisms that obtain carbon and energy by eating plants
Those non-photosynthesizing organisms that obtain carbon and energy by eating animals that eat plants (from a secondary source)
process in which cells take sugars (and other food molecules that animals have eaten) and combine them with oxygen to release energy. by product is Carbon dioxide, water, and chemical energy that can be used to power the cell's activities
carbon from the atmosphere passes to plants and then to animals and then back to the atmosphere. more sources of CO2 are: dead plant or animal matter that's broken down to CO2 through the process of respiration by bacteria and fungi in the soil known as decomposers or detrivores.
In addition to CO2, water, and sunlight, plants also need this to grow
Nitrate and phosphate
two very important mineral nutrients that plants need to grow.
needed to make DNA as well as the phospholipid bilayer that makes up all cell membranes*. The ________________ in the soil come from weathering rocks that contain phosphates as well as the decay of plant and animal matter
Critical b/c nitrogen is an essential component of the proteins in all living organisms. Plants and animals can't use nitrogen gas directly from the air to make proteins.
Bacteria in the soil or symbiotically living in the roots of certain plants (legumes) can convert nitrogen gas into nitrates. Plants then use the nitrates to make protein, and animals get nitrogen by eating the protein in plants (or other animals). When plants and animals die, decomposers (fungi and bacteria in the soil) decompose their tissues, converting the nitrogen in the proteins back into nitrogen gas in the atmosphere.
streams, rivers, and lakes
florida aquifer system
vast natural underground reservoir where water is stored
infections picked up when contaminated fresh water is used for drinking, washing, or food preparation
these microorganisms cause illness and differ in life cycle, body structure, and relatedness
used to classify living organisms as Bacteria, archaea, and eukarya
unicellular organisms that don't have membrane-bound organelles, make up two of the three domains: bacteria and archaea
prokaryotic organisms that live in extreme environments such as hot springs, salt lakes, and anoxic environments. No pathogenic ___________ have been detected at this point
third domain, prokaryotic organisms whose cells include membrane-bound nuclei (containing their DNA) and other membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotes can be unicellular or multicellular and are subdivided into kingdoms animals, fungi, plants, and protists
diverse group of several kingdoms that scientists are still trying to characterize
process that divides the cytoplasm to form two cells
found in sources of drinking water, but aren't included in 3-domain system b/c they aren't made up of cells and lack biological structures needed for metabolism and reproduction. Require a host cell to carry out biological activity
the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment
an interaction in which one organisms deprives another of a resource, causing it to grow more slowly, leave fewer offspring, or die more quickly
broadly characterized as an interaction in which one organism kills another and eats it completely
interaction in which an organism takes only part of its prey as a meal
consumption of dead organic matter and is a process essential to nutrient cycling
similarities to predation, but differs in that it is a symbiosis (two organisms of diff. species living closely together) in which one organism typically feeds on only one or very few individuals in a species an rarely kills them immediately
a type of symbiosis where both organisms receive a net benefit that may allow them to grow faster, leave more progeny, or live longer
the variety of different organisms
amount of organisms, often in terms of number of individuals or total biomass
patterns of diversity and abundance can be quantified as the number of different species called this
number of individuals/ total biomass
measuring the abundance of organisms requires a decision on which measure (of these two) is the most biologically meaningful measure
term for nonmoving (organisms)
lines that sessile species may lay
to sample in this type of environment, scientists can pull a seine net through water, either on foot or behind a boat, use bait traps, or swim in a specific area recording organisms they come across
to sample in this type of environment, scientists can sample small mobile organisms by means of pitfall traps
these factors are important for understanding why different habitats may be more suitable for different species
best soil for most plants, composed of sand, clay, and silt. Good b/c it drains at a moderate rate, holds nutrients, and has a lot of organic matter to support detritivores
soil pH and moisture
2 things important to plant community structure because they affect how minerals and nutrients dissolve in the soil
the diversity of living organisms
number of different alleles in a population
number of different species in a community
number of different ecological functions performed by a community that maintain ecosystem stability
if these species disappear from the community, the structure of the community is likely to collapse
trait common in a population because it increases fitness
diff. species have adapted to use unique combos of biotic and abiotic resources in their environment
hierarchal classification system
biologists organism diversity of life by grouping related organisms into this (species, family, order, etc.)
species, genus, family, orders, classes, phyla, kingdoms, domains
6 parts of hierarchal classification system
term that describes differential survival and reproduction
as a result of natural selection, populations can change over generations and increase the frequency of traits suited to the environment
when a species has a specific advantage that is useful to their environment that other organisms do not have
favors intermediate phenotypes and typically occurs in more stable environments where extreme phenotypes are selected against
shifts overall make up of a population by selecting for one extreme. common when environment changes, as in the peppered moth example or the bunnies in lab 12
results in a balancing of two contrasting phenotypes in a population and typically occurs in a patchy environment. ex: African finch lives in an area where only small and large seeds are available, so small and large beaked birds, not medium wants, are both selected for b/c medium beaks are inefficient at cracking both sizes of seeds
specific form of natural selection in which individuals with certain traits are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates
biological species concept
defines a species as a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce fertile offspring
type of reproductive barrier that happens before fertilization. Includes temporal isolation (when mating occurs at diff. seasons or times of day), habitat isolation (when populations don't often meet cuz they live far), behavioral isolation (when little or no sexual attraction exists between populations), mechanical isolation (when structural diffs. prevent fertilization), and gametic isolation (when eggs and sperm fail to unite).
type of reproductive barrier that happens after fertilization. Includes reduced hybrid viability (when hybrid zygotes fail to develop to sexual maturity), reduced hybrid fertility (when hybrids don't produce functional gametes), and hybrid breakdown (when hybrids of next generation are feeble or sterile).
ordered sequence of fossils including transitional forms and extinct forms, as they appear in rock layers that mark the passage of geological time; evidence to support theory of evolution
similarity in form or structure due to common ancestry, supports theory of evolution (evidence)
distribution of species in geographic space and evolutionary time, evidence to support theory of evolution
study of the hereditary background of an organism that is documented in its DNA, evidence to support theory of evolution
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