Science (Energy, Temperature, Etc)
Terms in this set (61)
What are the three states of matter of Earth?
gas, liquid, solid
What is absolute zero?
zero on the Kelvin represents -273 degrees celsius
What is the Fahrenheit scale?
divided into degrees; freezing is 32 degrees F; boiling is 212 degrees F
What is an internal combustion engine?
engines that burn fuel in cylinders in the engine
What is conduction?
heat is transferred from one particle of matter to another without movement of matter; ex: spoon in a boiling pot of water
What do heat engines transform thermal energy to?
What happens when thermal energy or matter increases?
its particles spread out and the substance expands
How can matter change from one state to another?
when thermal energy is released or absorbed
What is heat engine?
the transfer of thermal energy to mechanical energy
What is convection current?
the circular motion caused by convection
If two objects have different temperatures, how will heat flow?
from the warmer object to the cooler one
What is specific heat?
material with a high specific heat can absorb great deal of thermal energy without a great change in temperature
What is thermal expansion?
as the thermal energy of matter increases, its particles spread out and the substance expands
What is the Kelvin scale?
temperature scale commonly used in physical science; freezing = 273 K; boiling = 373 K
What is heat?
thermal energy moving from a warmer object to a cooler object
What is radiation?
transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves; the biggest radiation is the sun
What is the formula for change in energy?
mass x specific heat x change in energy
What is change of state?
physical change from one state of matter to another; depends on the amount of energy it has
What is convection?
heat is transferred by the movement of currents within a fluid; ex: when pot of water is on the stove, the bottom heats up first and the particles rise to heat the top
When does melting occur?
when a solid absorbs thermal energy
What is a refrigerator?
a device that transfers thermal energy from inside the fridge to the room outside
When does freezing occur?
when matter releases thermal energy
What is evaporation?
when vaporization takes place at the surface of a liquid
What is boiling?
when a liquid boils, you get bubbles from within the liquids rise to the surface
What is condensation?
the water vapor that is present in the air loses their thermal energy
What is heat transferred by?
conduction, convention, and radiation
What is temperature?
measures of the average kinetic energy of the individual particles in matter
What is the Celsius scale?
divided into degrees Celsius which are larger unit than Fahrenheit; freezing = 0; boiling = 100
What is state?
the way matter exists; ex" solid, liquid, gas
What is external combustion engine?
engines that burn fuel outside the engine in a boiler
What are three common scales for measuring temperature?
Fahrenheit, Kelvin, Celsius
What is an insulator?
does not transfer thermal energy well
What is a conductor?
transfers thermal energy well
What are fossil fuels?
these include coal, petroleum, and natural gas
Where does most fossil fuel energy come from?
What is combustion?
the process of burning fossil fuel
What happens to the temperature if the kinetic energy of the particles in an object increase?
the temperature increases
What are three ways heat can move/transfer?
conduction, convection, radiation
What is radiation?
transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
What is putting ice on a sprained ankle an example of?
What do you call a material that doesn't conduct heat well?
How many ways can heat move?
Which state of matter will fill all the space available?
What is the change from a gas state to liquid state?
What is the change of state from a solid to a liquid change of state?
Where are external combustion engines commonly found?
What is the change of state from liquid to solid?
What is the measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles of an object?
If you want to know the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 2 kg of steel by 10 degrees C, what do you need to know about steel?
its specific heat
What is the process by which heat moves from one particle to another without the movement of matter itself called?
What is vaporization that occurs below the surface of a liquid called?
What is the process of burning a fuel called?
What happens to the particles of a solid as the thermal energy of the solid increases?
when material absorbs enough thermal energy, it will melt
During a summer night, the air temp drops by 10 degrees C. Will the temperature of the water in a nearby lake change by the same amount? Why or why not?
No because they are two different states of matter with different specific heat
When you heat a pot of water on the stove, a convection current is formed. Explain how this happens.
heat from the bottom rises to the top and expands
How can you add thermal energy to a substance without increasing its temperature?
if you add more particles it makes it bigger, increasing the objects mass
When molten steel becomes solid, is energy absorbed or released by the steel? Explain.
released because when substances change phase their thermal energy is released
Why is the air pressure in a car's tires different before and after the car has been driven for an hour?
when tire heats up, it creates little holes releasing air
When they are hung, telephone lines are allowed to sag. Can you think of a reason why?
when wires get hot they will expand causing them to sag because of thermal expansion
A refrigerator is running in a small room. The fridge door is open , but the room does not grow any cooler. Explain using the law of conservation of energy.
because cool air runs out of energy; then the fridge would start to pump out warm air
What is the equation for changing Fahrenheit into Celsius
C = 5/9 (x-32)