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Historians once referred to the Middle Ages roughly 400-1400 as the ______________.

Dark Ages

Scholars thought of the long interval from classical antiquity to the beginning of the modern European world
as ________________________.

rough and uncivilized

Which group of barbarian invaders became firmly established in regions known today as France, Switzerland,
the Netherlands, and parts of Germany?


The Ostrogoth, Theodoric, established his kingdom in ___________.


What area of Western Europe was never colonized by Rome?


Elaborately decorated Merovingian fibulae have been excavated from graves. Based on this it can be said
these small objects are __________________.

emblems of prestige

Two silver spoons, "Saulos" and "Paulos," Paul's names before and after baptism, were discovered as part of
the Sutton Hoo burial. What might be alluded from these spoons?

The owner 's conversion to Christianity.

The Sutton Hoo purse has two groupings each of a man standing between two lions. This can also be found in
what earlier culture?


Early 11th Century England was briefly part of what empire?


In the later Middle Ages religious books were created for the private devotions of the laity.
They were based on readers used by the monks. These books contained prayers to be
read at specific times during the day, they were popularly known as _________________.

Books of Hours

The symbol of Matthew from the Book of Durrow shows frontal head, profile feet, and a cloak and frame that
resemble contemporaneous cloisonné metalwork. Which of the following statements explains this work?

wedding the abstraction of Early Medieval adornment and Early Christian pictorial

It has been said that the author-portrait of St, Matthew from the Lindisfarne Gospels shows classical
influences. What supports this statement?

The figure is seated as a philosopher or poet reading or writing.

What manuscript is commonly considered the greatest achievement in Hiberno-Saxon art?

Book of Kells

Equestrian statues were reminders of Rome's glory. Charlemagne returned Rome after his coronation with an
equestrian statue of Theodoric. Which statue served as the ultimate model for such equestrian portraits?

Marcus Aurelius

The Ebbo Gospels represent a new Carolingian vernacular. Which of the following describes the new
Carolingian style?

translated a classical prototype

The Lindau Gospels book cover displays an amalgamation of tradition and style. Which of the following
describes that cmbination?

The work highlights the Early Christian tradition and Utrecht Psalter style

What church plan was used as the model for the palace chapel at Aachen?

San Vitale

What do the doors of St. Michael at Hildesheim illustrate?

Original Sin and Redemption

The alternate support system is first found in the architecture of which period?


Irish or Celtic stone crosses are identifiable by which of the following?

a circle intersecting the cross arms

Who was a major force in the revival of the Classical style in early medieval times?

Otto III

It has been said that Bernward's doors are instruments that detail Original Sin and Redemption by juxtaposing
these two concepts side by side. Which juxtaposed panels from the doors would support this?

The Fall and the Crucifixion

_________________ was a possible model for Bernward's column because the narrative reads from top to

Trajan's Column

The Utrecht Psalter is most closely related to which of the following?

Ebbo Gospels

In which way did the three-aisled basilica for the Monastery of St. Gall differ from its Early Christian

It had a second apse on the west end

The ________________ burial epitomizes the early medieval tradition of burying great lords with rich

Sutton Hoo

Early Medieval burial traditions were recorded in the __________________.

Saga of Beowulf

The abbey church at Hildesheim has a double-transept plan that creates eastern and western centers of gravity.
The lateral entrances on the north and south aisles further disrupt the traditional basilican plan. What model
might have been used for this church?

Basilica Ulpia

What was the primary vehicle used in the Christianization of the British Isles?

liturgical books

The primary sacred text was the Bible, consisting of the Old Testament originally written in Hebrew and the
New Testament written in Greek. In what language is the Vulgate version of the Bible written?


Which of the following manuscripts showed the greatest influence of Roman illusionism?

Coronation Gospels

The style of the Gospel Book of Otto III can best be described as ________________.

Byzantine formalism

It has been said that Charlemagne was a man of great energy and learning, a strong patron of the arts, and a
sincere admirer of classical culture. Which of the following do later generations owe to Charlemagne's

the copying of important classical texts

Later church architecture adopted heavy square piers alternating with columns, dividing the nave into vertical
units and mitigating the tunnel-like horizontality of Early Christian basilicas. This system is known as

alternate support

The Carolingian architectural plan that demonstrated the beginnings of the modular system was found in

the Monastery of St. Gall

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