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Terms in this set (73)
The length of time from conception to birth. In humans the average length, as calculated from the first day of the last normal menstruation period, is 280 days, (38 weeks - 42 weeks). Infants born prior to the 38th week are considered premature and those born after the 42nd week are post mature.
Number of pregnancies in which the fetus or fetuses reach viability (approximately 20 weeks) regardless of whether the fetus is born alive
A normal period of pregnancy, approx. 10 lunar months or 38-42 weeks' gestation.
Occurring before the 38th week of gestation.
An infant born after the beginning of the 42nd week of gestation.
Period of pregnancy between conception and the onset of labor.
Time during childbirth. The period from the onset of labor to its termination, marked by delivery of the placenta.
Being or following the period after childbirth. Pertaining to the 6 week period after childbirth, during which the mother undergoes progressive physiological changes that restore uterine size and system functions to nonpregnant status.
The spontaneous or induced termination of pregnancy before the fetus reaches a viable age. The legal definition of viability (usually 20-24 weeks) differs from state to state. Spontaneous abortion is when a pregnancy is terminated before 20 weeks of gestation (the point of fetal viability) or a fetal weight less than 500 g.
The birth of a dead fetus occurring after 22 weeks gestation. Identified risk factors include: excess maternal weight, maternal age over 35 years, and smoking during pregnancy.
No pregnancy beyond the stage of viability
Has completed one pregnancy to stage of viability
Has completed two or more pregnancies to stage of viability
➢ Cardinal Movements of Labor
Changes in the position of the fetal head, occurring with a vertex presentation, as it descends through the birth canal and exits the mother's body. The cardinal movements are: engagement, descent, flexion, internal rotation, extension, external rotation and expulsion.
➢ Artificial Rupture of Membranes (AROM)
An amniotomy is the artificial rupture of the amniotic membranes (AROM) by the provider using an Amnihook or other sharp instrument. Labor typically begins within 12 hr after the membranes rupture.
➢ Bloody Show
Brownish or blood-tinged mucus discharge caused by expulsion of the cervical mucus plug resulting from the onset of cervical dilation and effacement
Sign of impending delivery as the presenting part moves into positive stations and begins to push against the pelvic floor; appearance of the fetal head at the perineum
➢ Braxton Hicks Contractions
false contractions; painless, irregular, and usually relieved by walking
➢ Ultrasound (US)
A procedure that consists of high-frequency sound waves used to visualize internal organs and tissues by producing a real-time, three-dimensional image of the developing fetus and maternal structures (FHR, pelvic anatomy). Allows for early diagnosis of complications, permits earlier interventions, & decreases neonatal and maternal morbidity/mortality. Three types of ultrasound: external abdominal, transvaginal, and Doppler.
➢ Physiological Anemia of Pregnancy
Pseudoanemia of pregnancy due to an increase of plasma that exceeds the production of red blood cells.
Slight fluttering movements of the fetus felt by a woman, usually between 16 to 20 weeks of gestation
➢ Fetal Decelerations (Early, Late and Variable)
A fall in the baseline fetal heart rate as recorded by the fetal monitor.
➢ Early Deceleration
Coincides with uterine contractions and reflects the fetal vagal response to head compression during these contractions. Normal baseline variability is evident throughout the interval between uterine contractions.
➢ Late Deceleration
Occurs after contraction and reflects insufficient blood flow through the intervillous spaces of the placenta.
➢ Variable Deceleration
Does not occur at any consistent point during contractions. The monitor record also exhibits different degrees and shapes. Variable deceleration indicates interference with blood flow through the umbilical vessels caused by cord compression.
➢ Lithotomy Position
A surgical position used in gynecologic, rectal, and urologic procedures in which the patient lies on her back, thighs flexed on the abdomen, legs on thighs, thighs abducted. Common position for childbirth.
The intentional rupture of the amniotic sac with a sterile amnihook, Allis' forceps, or amniotome to stimulate or augment labor.
➢ Contraction Stress Test
Analysis of the FHR response to contractions (which decrease placental blood flow) determines how the fetus will tolerate the stress of labor. A pattern of at least three contractions within a 10-min time period with duration of 40 to 60 seconds each must be obtained to use for assessment data. Contractions may be generated by breast stimulation or by oxytocin challenge test. Used after 34 weeks.
➢ Nonstress Test (NST)
It is a noninvasive procedure that monitors response of the FHR to fetal movement. A Doppler transducer (monitors FHR) and a tocotransducer (monitor uterine contractions) are attached to the client's abdomen to obtain tracing strips. The client pushes a button whenever she feels a fetal movement, which is noted on the tracing. This allows a nurse to assess the FHR in relationship to the fetal movement.
➢ Vena Caval Syndrome (Supine Hypotensive Syndrome)
Blood pressure may appear to be lower while supine due to the weight and pressure of the gravid uterus on the vena cava, which decreases venous blood flow to the heart, and can cause maternal hypotension and fetal hypoxia. Signs and symptoms include dizziness, lightheadedness, and pale, clammy skin
Established from the beginning of one contraction to the beginning of the next.
Strength of the contraction at its peak described as mild, moderate, or strong.
Fetal head descends into true pelvis about 14 days before labor; feeling that the fetus has "dropped;" easier breathing, but more pressure on bladder, resulting in urinary frequency; more pronounced in clients who are primigravida
Abnormal position of the fetal presenting part, making natural delivery difficult or impossible. Labor is longer, and fetal descent may be impaired.
Shaping of the fetal head by overlapping sutures to adapt itself to the dimensions of the birth canal during its descent through the pelvis
➢ Leopold Maneuver
Abdominal palpation of the number of fetuses, the fetal presenting part, lie, attitude, descent, and the probable location where fetal heart tones may be best auscultated on the woman's abdomen.
➢ Spontaneous Rupture of Membranes
The rupture of the amniotic sac as a normal result of dilation of the cervix uterus in labor.
The relationship in centimeters between the presenting part and the level of the ischial spines.
The time between the beginning of a contraction to the end of that same contraction.
The thinning of the cervix as the internal os is slowly pulled up into the lower uterine segment.
Occurs when the presenting part, usually biparietal (largest) diameter of the fetal head passes the pelvic inlet at the level of the ischial spines. Referred to as station 0.
➢ Fetal Presentation
The part of the fetus that is entering the pelvic inlet first. It can be the back of the head (occiput), chin (mentum), shoulder (scapula), or breech (sacrum or feet).
➢ Fetal Attitude
relationship of fetal body parts to one another.
➢ Fetal Lie
The relationship of the maternal longitudinal axis (spine) to the fetal longitudinal axis (spine).
➢ Nägele's Rule
Used to calculate EDD (EDB, EDC). Take the first day of the woman's last menstrual cycle, subtract 3 months, and then add 7 days and 1 year, adjusting for the year as necessary.
Transabdominal puncture and aspiration of the amniotic sac by ultrasound to remove amniotic fluid. The sample is studied chemically and cytologically to detect genetic and biochemical disorders and maternal-fetal blood incompatibility and, later in the pregnancy, to determine fetal maturity. The procedure also allows for transfusion of the fetus with platelets or blood and instillation of drugs for treating the fetus. This procedure is usually performed no earlier than at 14 weeks' gestation. The procedure can cause abortion or trauma to the fetus.
A device for estimating the force of uterine contractions in labor.
➢ Fetal Acceleration
Heart rate acceleration, the increase in heart rate associated with fetal movement. A reassuring sign during labor that the fetus is not experiencing intrauterine hypoxemia.
Rupture of Membranes
Spontaneous Rupture of Membranes
Artificial Rupture of Membranes
Premature Rupture of Membranes
Gravida, Term, Preterm, Abortions, Living
Contraction Stress Test
Venereal Disease Research Laboratories
Hemoglobin & Hematocrit
Type & Cross-Match
Estimated Date of Birth
Normal Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery
Group B Streptococcus
Estimated Blood Loss
Toxoplasmosis, Other Agents, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex
Fetal Heart Rate
Intrauterine Pressure Catheter
Fetal Scalp Electrode
Vaginal Birth After Previous C-Section
Failure to Progress