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What are the therapeutic targets of injectable anesthetics?
GABA and NMDA receptors
In order for Injectable anesthetics to be effective, what must they pass?
What are Barbituates?
What are the important side effects of Barbituates?
-CNS - Decreases ICP
-MSK - increases laryngeal reflexes/spasms
Thiobarbiturates are more lipid soluble than oxybarbiturates. What does that even mean?
They have a quicker induction and shorter DOA
What Barbiturate is used as an anticonvulsant?
What Barbiturate is used for euthanasia?
What Barbiturate is the odd one out (in reference to thiobarbiturate/oxybarbiturate type)? Why?
It is a oxybarbiturate with a SHORT DOA (which is weird because they normally have a long DOA)
A lean animal that receives a barbiturate will have a decreased/increased recovery time. WHY?
Increased recovery time.
Due to the leanness of the animal, there is no fat for the drug to be redistributed into and that is what normally happens for them to wake up. The drug is basically in circulation longer --> prolonged recovery time!
What animal, when a barbiturate is used, experiences excitation, incoordination, and flexion of legs?
What animal, when a barbiturate is used, experiences a prolonged recovery from Thiopental due to increased fat stores?
What animal, when a barbiturate is used, experiences propensity for regurgitation, exacerbation of 'pink tooth,' and has 8x faster metabolism of barbiturates?
What is Propofol?
What are the important side effects of Propofol?
-CNS - decreased ICP
-CVS - systemic hypotension, negative inotropic effects
-Resp. - apnea following bolus, resp. depression w/ hypercapnia and acidosis
-MSK - EXCELLENT muscle relaxant, decreased laryngeal reflexes
What animals have significant pulmonary metabolism of Propofol?
cats and dogs
The clearance is so rapid that it exceeds maximum concentration in hepatic blood flow
What are adverse effects of Propofol use?
-Pain at injection site
-Increased wound infection
What animal, when using Propofol, has a prolonged recovery time?
What animal, when using Propofol, has significant respiratory depression?
red-tailed hawk, great horned owl
What animal, when using Propofol, has excitement during induction, especially when combined with alpha-2 agonists?
What animal, when using Propofol, experiences oxidative injury to RBCs (Heinz bodies), anorexia, diarrhea, malaise?
What are Dissociatives?
Where do they also have effects at?
Also at mu ('u') receptors, MAO receptors, muscarine receptors, and Ca2+ channels
What are some important side effects of Dissociatives?
-CNS - increased ICP
-CVS - increased cardiovascular effects, protects cardiovascular function and oxygen balance in septic shock
-Resp. - maintains laryngeal reflexes/spasms
Tiletamine is only available in combination with ____________.
Telazol has different effects in different species. What animals will experience greater effect from Zolazepam?
cats and pigs
Telazol has different effects in different species. What animals will experience greater effect from Tiletamine?
dogs and horses
What animal, when using dissociatives, experience slow, ataxic recovery with delayed neurologic dysfunction?
What animal, when using dissociatives, experiences a rough recovery and requires additional sedatives?
What animal, when using dissociatives, experiences excretion of norketamine in urine?
What animal, when using dissociatives, experiences lethal renal tubular necrosis?
New Zealand white rabbits
What are Etomidate/Metomidate?
What are the important side effects of Etomidate/Metomidate?
-CNS - decreased ICP
-CVS - CAN be used in compromised patients
-Resp. - CAN be used in compromised patients
-Endocrine - decreased cortisol production (--> increased mobidity and mortality during long-term anesthesia)
What animal, when using Etomidate/Metomidate, experiences hemolysis when used as a continuous rate infusion?
What animal, when using Etomidate/Metomidate, can only have Metomidate?
What animal, when using Etomidate/Metomidate, experiences extensive liver metabolism and fragility of RBCs --> hemolysis?
What are some adverse effects of Etomidate? What causes these effects?
-pain after injection and hyperosmosis (--> intravascular hemolysis)
-Propylene glycol causes these effects, it is used as the vehicle to administer the drug
What are Neuropeptides (aka Neurosteroids)?
What are the Neuropeptides?
What are the dissociatives?
What are the side effects of Neuropeptides?
-CNS - decreased ICP
-CVS - dose-dependent changes
-Resp. - PRESERVES resp. function
-Allergic - may see erythema, edema, hypotension, or life-threatening anaphylaxis
What animal, when using neuropeptides, will have a decrease DOA of the drug (due to the presence of CYP450)?
What animal, when using neuropeptides, experiences histamine release --> significant hypotension?
What animal, when using neuropeptides, experiences histamine release --> edema of the feet, ears, and muzzle?
What are the barbiturates?
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