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45 terms

Biology Honors Ch7

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Osmosis
involves water moving across the plasma membrane to the side with greater solute concentration
Exocytosis
occurs when the plasma membrane surrounds a large substance inside the cell and moves it outside the cell
Facilitated diffusion
moves small molecules across the plasma membrane using transport proteins
dynamic equilibrium
the condition that results when diffusion continues until the concentrations are the same in all areas
active transprt
occurs when substances move against the concentration gradient; requires energy and the aid of carrier proteins
endocytosis
occurs when the plasma membrane surrounds a large substance outside the cell and moves it inside the cell
transport proteins
moves substances through the plasma membrane
lipids
make up most of the molecules in the plasma membrane
phospholipid
a molecule that has a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate-containing compound
fluid mosaic model
the phospholipid "sea" in which embedded substances float
phospholipid bilayer
two layers of phospholipids arranged tail-to-tail
Microtubules
are long, hollow protein cylinders that form a rigid skeleton for the cell
Nucleus
contains most of the cells DNA
the Nucleolus
is the structure that produces Ribosomes
Golgi Aparatus
a stack of membranes that packages proteins into sacs called vesicles
cytoplasm
the semi fluid internal environment of the cell
Compound light microscope
uses a series of lenses to magnify an image
Both
organisms that break down molecules to generate energy
Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes
organisms that have cells lacking internal membrane-bound organelles Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes
organisms whose cells do not have a nuclei
Eularyotes
organisms that are either unicellular or multicellular
Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes
prokaryotes
organisms that are generally unicellular
Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes
Eukaryotes
organisms that have cells containing organelles
Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes
Both
Organisms that have plasma membranes
Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes
Homeostasis
the process of maintaining balance inside a cell
Plasma Membrane
a boundary between a cell and its environment
Selective Permeability
the feature of the plasma membrane that keeps some substances out
Plasma Membrane
separates prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells from the watery environment in which they exist
selective permeability
the quality of a plasma membrane that allows oxygen and glucose to move in
Homeostasis
Mainained by the plasma membrane
Electron Microscopes
uses magnets to direct a beam of electrons at an image
TEM Transmission electron microscope
only works if the specimen thats being magnified is dead, sliced very thin, and stained with heavy metals.
SEM Scanning Electron Microscope
microscope that can produce a 3-D image
Prokaryotes
simple structure, contains a plasma membrane, does not contain membrane-bound organelles
Eukaryotes
complex structure, contains a plasma membrane, contains membrane-bound organelles
Robert Hooke
Scientist who first discovered the cell in the 1600's, gave the cell its name
Schwann
scientist who reported that all animals are composed of cells
Schleden
Scientist who concluded that all plants are composed of cells
diffusion
movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an are of lower concentrstion. examples perfume in a room, a fart
Temperature, pressure, concentration
What are the three things that effect the rate of diffusion
plants cells
what organisms have cell walls
a phospholipid bilayer
what is the plasma membrane composed of
Proteins
transmit signals inside the cell, act as a support structure, provide pathways for substances to enter and leave a cell
Fluid Mosaic Model
the phospholipid bilaiter allows other molecules to " float" in the membrane
plasma membrane
thin, flexible, boundary surrounding and protecting a cell