We the people Ch 8, 9, 10, 17.
Terms in this set (353)
________is the single most important political act for most Americans.
voter turnout means
as the percentage of those that turnout among those who are eligible to vote.
Compared with western Europe, the United States has a(n) ________ turnout in elections
Which one country we does consistently battle it out with for the lowest voter turnout rates in the industrialized world.
Which type of organization sponsors candidates for political office, specifically under the organization's name?
The elections of 2004, 2008, and 2012 have actually been turnout about
about 60 %
our turnout in elections is quite low. but there has even been a decrease in the past two decades and turnout in the U.S. hovers around
turnout in 2016 was
Reasons for low turnout
1. voters dont have civic duty; (40% of the American public, in a recent poll believe that)
2. lack information about the candidates
3. Belief that one's vote will not make any difference
Anthony Downs' rational-choice theory of voting
individuals act in their own best interest,
the decision of an individual to vote as a cost benefit analysis.
How will be the benefit of voting?
two forms first is the civic duty to vote, (emotional) The second is that people might believe their vote to be valuable, especially if an election is close.
What does the rational-choice theory argue?
voters want to maximize the chance that policies they favor will be adopted by government and parties want to win office
Suffrage qualifications originally set by states
The Constitution set this as a power that the states should have to monitor and administer within their own borders
Who were the first people allowed to vote in America?
white male property owners
By ________, all white males were allowed to vote, regardless of property ownership.
The 15th Amendment, ratified in 1870, mandated that
no state could prevent the right to vote on account of race. Guaranteed suffrage to African american males
How did the 15th Amendment change the American electorate?
It prohibited voting restrictions based on race, but it still allowed barriers (literacy tests, poll taxes, etc.)
required citizens pay a tax to vote; attempted to keep blacks from voting
How have amendments to the Constitution and federal laws changed the American electorate?
They have significantly reduced the power of individual states over a citizen's right to vote and eliminated voting restrictions.
Which of the following statements is true?
A. Eighteen states granted women the right to vote before the adoption of the 19th Amendment.
B. Many states allowed the direct election of U.S. senators before the adoption of the 17th Amendment.
C. both a and b
How did the 19th Amendment change the American electorate?
It removed voting restrictions to women.
Historical Restrictions to Vote
1. literacy tests
2. poll taxes (keep African Americans from voting, and poorer whites)
3. white primaries (African Americans can not vote in the primary elections),
4. the grandfather clause (those whose ancestors voted before the 1860 were allowed can vote
and as they were slaves for African American males, this was not possible - Supreme Court stopped these in 1915)
allowed people who didn't meet literacy and poll registration to vote if their ancestors had voted before 1867
When did African Americans truly gain voting rights in the United States without fear of reprisal?
voting rights act 1965
suspended use of tests and federal examiners who could order the registration of blacks in states and counties (mostly in south) where fewer than 50% of voting-age population were registered or had voted.
Beginning in the 1960s, the ________ became more bureaucratized, while the ________ became more factionalized.
Republican party, Democratic party
Unlike political machines, ideological parties tend to be
________ is the only state that does not require voter registration.
Many states until the early 20th century would allow non citizens to vote in elections.
26th amendment 1971
voting since 18 years old
25 states have a requirement that you have to be a resident for at least 30 days before you can register to vote in a location. The other half require fewer or no days.
About ________ million Americans have lost their voting rights as a result of felony convictions.
Felons, mentally ill, or election-law violators are also restricted to vote
Which of the following statements about voting rights is correct?-------a.
a. Many states have laws restricting the voting rights of persons convicted of felonies.
Attempts to Improve Voter Turnout
Typically have a partisan dimension( Democratic)
The National Voter Registration Act of 1993
(Simplified registration process)
(All elections in state can be conducted by mail)
________ conducts its elections entirely by mail.
Some say that the election by mail, it increases the turnout, but it also opens up the door for larger chances of voter fraud.
The National Voter Registration Act of 1993 - also known as the Motor-Voter Law
can register to vote at the same time that you get a driver's license or register your vehicle.
Improve Voter Turnout Typically have a partisan dimension
because usually target making it easier for certain groups to vote, usually are more Democratic
Attempts to Improve Voting Procedures
Help America Vote Act (2002)
(help states purchase new electronic voting
Problems in 2006
(half the states using electronic voting had
Voting Systems in Recent Elections
-more than half used paper ballots in 2012, but
less than 20% in 2016
electronic voting equipment brought concern over voter fraud over electronic voting machines
Who Actually Votes
1. Educational Attainment
More education = more likely a regular voter
2. Income Levels and Age
Wealthy people are among regular voters
Older voters turn out more regularly
3. Minority Status
Racial and ethnic minorities are
underrepresented (black on pair with white)
Which of the following is NOT a key factor affecting one's level of participation?---------C
c. geographic region
Which of the following characteristics constitutes one's socioeconomic status?
level of income, level of education, and prestige of occupation
________ is the single most important factor in predicting whether an individual votes.
What has been one of the most pressing questions concerning socioeconomic status?
Why has the level of participation in politics not increased as a result of the rising level of education among Americans?
The socioeconomic status model explains one's political participation by examining an individual's ________.
level of education, income, and occupational status
If you have voted in the past you are much more likely to vote
During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the criteria for determining one's eligibility to vote were established by ________.
What was the original purpose of voter registration?
to reduce corruption by making it more difficult to vote
Under the Constitution, ________ has/have the power to regulate elections.
According to political scientists, voter registration requirements reduce voter turnout by as much as ________ percent.
About ________ percent of registered voters have voted in recent elections.
________ typically has the highest voter turnout among the states.
State-level data from 1980-2010 suggests that
stringent voter ID laws have the effect of lowering overall turnout.
Which of the following statements about voter identification laws is most accurate?
Voter identification laws in the states disproportionately affect minority citizens and the less affluent.
It is likely that eliminating state-level voter registration laws would
increase voter turnout among younger people.
Which of the following states does NOT permit Election Day registration?
Political Party definition
An organization that sponsors candidates for political office under the organization's name. Serve as major vehicles for citizen participation
Not mentioned in the Constitution
What is a group of citizens who organize to win elections, hold public office, operate the government, and determine public policy?
People can join a party for reasons other than patronage. The text cites all of the following other reasons EXCEPT
to join a delegating committee (caucus groups).
Party organizations based on their members' enjoyment of the sociability of politics are referred to a
Which of the following statements about the traditional party organization in the United States is correct?
It exists, but only in a few states.
E.E. Schattschneider -SAID
"Political parties created democracy and democracy is unthinkable save in terms of political parties"
Political parties have been doing less ________ in recent years.
mobilizing of voters
Which of the following statements about political parties is correct?
During the nineteenth century, political parties employed hundreds of thousands of workers to organize and mobilize voters.
parties are the largest factor in American politics across the world in mobilizing citizens to engage in politics. Get out the vote efforts; provide organizations for citizens to join.
Thomas Jefferson even stated that .
"If I could not go to heaven but with a party, I would not go there at all".
The First Political Parties
Federalists (support the Constitution)
Strong central government
Republic should be ruled by wealthiest and
Feared a too powerful national government
Opponents to the Federalists after the constitution was ratified called themselves Republicans. We often refer to these as Jeffersonian Republicans or even Democratic Republicans. We call them this to especially distinguish them from the modern Republican Party.
Which of the following parties originated from internal mobilization?
the Republican Party
Federalists - Headed by
History of Political party
1796: John Adams defeats Thomas Jefferson
1800 and 1804: Jefferson won the presidency
Realignment - the support for and relative strength of the parties shift and the parties are reestablished with different coalitions of supporters
1820: Jeffersonian Republicans split into two groups
1850: Whigs absorbed into the new Republican Party
The first organized political party in American history was
made up of the followers of Jefferson.
Who was the first person to lead the Republicans, also nicknamed the Democratic Republicans?
The first Republican party, with its base of support in the South, was organized in the 1790s by
The Federalist party could not compete effectively in national elections because
it had such a limited sectional and class base.
The change in voting patterns that occurs after a critical election
Which of the following were major issues in the three clearest cases of critical or realigning periods?
Slavery and economics
This realignment saw that the Federalist Party actually never regained power and in fact became the first party in American history to disappear. The Jeffersonian Republicans dominated American politics for the next 20 years.
1820: Jeffersonian Republicans split into two groups
the second real realignment in American.
1. Andrew Jackson called Democrats (known as the Jacksonian Democrats)
2. the Nation Republicans (which later became the Whig Party) was headed by John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster. These two groups competed back and forth for the next two decades. This was really where the two-party system that we know today developed.
The newly formed Republican Party (1850)
absorbed the Northern Whigs who opposed the expansion of slavery and then fielded their first elected candidate for president in Abraham Lincoln in 1860.
Which of the following statements concerning slavery and the election of 1860 is INCORECT?
Party loyalties remained fluid after 1860.
People that did not support the governor and crown in Great Britain
From 1896 to 1932, the ________ Party was the nation's majority party.
Which of the following statements about the critical election of 1896 is correct ?
The Republicans won the support of those in cities.
During the late 1840s and early 1850s, both the Democratic and Whig parties were divided by
conflicts over slavery.
After the Civil War, Republicans and Democrats were about even in strength
Which of the following statements about the modern Republican party is correct
It emerged as a major party only after the Civil War.
the Republicans gained an advantage
Democrats allied with the Populist Movement
Populists advocated inflation
Republicans were "the party that knew how to manage the economy
After the Great Depression
destroyed the image of Republicans
1932: FDR elected and theDemocrats back in
A Civil Rights Plank
The New Deal programs open to all races
Democrats adopted a civil rights plank
A "Rolling Realignment"
Large numbers of Democrats sided with
Democrats adopted a civil rights plank
African American vote for the Democrats (they were primarily Republican before the 1930s because they were the party of Lincoln). This coalition until 1970s
A "Rolling Realignment"
Large numbers of Democrats sided with
Southern Democrats (another realignment), joining conservative Republican Party. Until 1980 election of Ronald Reagan. The Democrats dominated from the 1930 to 1980, but the current landscape is very much even between the two, as we most clearly saw in the elections of 2000 (especially) and 2004.
The elections of Ronald Reagan could not have represented a realignment because
they left control of Congress in the hands of the Democratic party
Determining when general elections are held is an activity that is associated with political parties in the United States.
Since 1860, two major political parties, the Democrats and Republicans, have dominated American politics
Political parties organize elected officials who share common policy objectives.
Political parties play a prominent role in the U.S. Constitution, as they help to organize government
Democrats dominated from the 1930s to 1980, but the current landscape is very much even between the two, as we most clearly saw in the elections of 2000 (especially) and 2004.
Which of the following statements is true?
Republicans were better organized than Democrats in 2004.
All of the following statements concerning the delegates to the 2004 conventions are correct EXCEPT
More of the Democrats were male.
Red States versus Blue States
Supposed cultural differences between "blue" (Democratic) and "red" (Republican) states
Most states are "purple"
Shifting Political Fortunes
Trouble for the Republicans (decline in support
from 2005 to the election of President Obama)
Trouble for the Democrats (democratic advantage
vanished within one year of Obama'
The Triumph of Partisanship
-Extreme polarization in current politics
-Belief that compromise is betrayal
-The impact of the Tea Party Movement
Decline in support from 2005 to the election of President Obama
this was largely due to the lingering unpopular war in Iraq which diminished support for Republicans. 2006 saw the Democrats regain control of the House and Senate and then culminated in 2008 with the election of Barack Obama.
Democratic advantage vanished within one year of Obama's inauguration
continued unemployment and a the perceived massive expanse of government with the government stimulus package and bailout of Chrysler and GM, coupled with the passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, had many voters believing that government was growing too big, too fast. So in 2010 the American citizens gave power of the House of Republicans back to the Republican Party
Government subsidizing big business
Bailout - 2008/2009 - Chrysler GM
What is the Affordable Care Act (ACA) 2010?
a law consisting of two pieces of legislation that are collectively referred to as "Healthcare Reform" or "Obamacare"
Extreme polarization in current politics
parties have become more homogeneous after 1968 when conservative Southern Democrats became Republicans and liberal Northeastern Republicans became Democrats.
Belief that compromise is betrayal
attempt to make the other party appear weak. This has been going on with Republicans sine the 1990s with Newt Gingrich and has only increased with polarization. Democrats have recently pushed to respond in kind because of Tea party Movement
The Republicans changed the goal of their national party to the election of candidates while the Democrats sought to make their party
achieve a fairer distribution of power.
Republican speaker of the house from 1995 to 1999; led by Republican Revolution, ending forty years of Democratic party majorities in that body; made sweeping reforms to House rules
The impact of the Tea Party movement
have emphasized "no-compromise conservatism". This has resulted in the political gridlock that we have seen even today because of the feared revolt of this segment of the Republican Party if the party leadership compromises with the Democrats.
According to the text, the role of national conventions has been transformed by party rules into a
place where delegates ratify decisions made by voters
Tea Party movement
conservative populist social and political movement that emerged in 2009 in the US, generally opposing excessive taxation and gov't intervention in the private sector while supporting stronger immigration controls.
a grassroots, conservative protest movement that opposed recent government actions, including economic stimulus spending and health care reform
Within both major parties, it is the ________ level that has most
In contemporary American politics, solid support for the Republican Party comes from the ________.
South and Mountain West
The most obvious critical realignments: 1800, 1828, 1860, 1896, 1932, 1980. Some have argued that there is a cycle that exists where America has a realignment and a critical election about every 30-40 years.
What happens when a major party is taken by a minor party and is triggered by critical election?
Which of the following statements about minor parties in the United States is correct?
They were once discouraged by the election laws of many states.
What is the process of disengagement of people from political parties
1. Weakened attachment to the parties - for both Republicans and Democrats.
2. Much of the electorate is independent- in 2012 38%, thus making real realignment more difficult to establish and maintain.
A lessening of the importance of party loyalties in voting decisions
group of the electorate grows in size or influence or they are part of a large migration to other states enough to tip the balance in one way or another. Hispanics can move beyond their traditional locales and could change the American political landscape.
1. One type of voter becomes numerous
2. Result could tip a state from one party to another
What Do Political Parties Do?
the main function is to provide the linkage between citizens and the government
a. Selecting Candidates (primary)
b. Informing the Public
c. Coordinating Policy making
d. Checking the Power of the Governing Party
e. Balancing Competing Interests
f. Running Campaigns
Voters decide their party's candidates
Voter turnout for primaries lower than in general
Many strong social movements in the United States (e.g., the antiwar movement of the late 1960s) never produced a significant third party. One reason for this is that
dissident elements were able to influence elections through party primaries and national conventions.
The turn out for primary not only is turnout lower, but voters are different from a general election. Primary voters are more interested in politics, stronger and extreme partisans
Primaries came about in the early 1900s as part of what were called the "Progressive Reforms"
meant weaken political parties. Limited the party leadership from having control over their final candidate selection. Other progressive reforms like Australian, ballot; where your vote is secret and not as able to be influenced by the party leadership. In the past you would pick up a ticket that was often a certain color, or only had one party's candidates on it so that it was basically known for whom you were actually voting.
Scholars have identified ____ critical or realigning periods in American politics.
The progressives favored all of the following
better relations with business.
Informing the Public
Parties educate public about political issue, present views through TV, newspapers,
speeches, web site materials
Allows citizens to form opinions and consider
Modern political campaigns do NOT depend on ________. C
a. broadcast media
b. direct mailings
c. a large army of volunteers from the party
d. Phone banks
e. Public opinion polling
Democrats will emphasize equality, social policies, welfare and things like that; Republicans will emphasize law and order, and sometimes the economy.
Which of the following statements about the formula by which delegates to the nominating conventions are apportioned is correct
The Democrats and Republicans use different formulas
The formula for the selection of delegates to the Republican national convention generally stresses the importance of
Coordinating Policy making
The political party is the institution where executive and legislative branches cooperate with each other
Parties act as the glue for our federal structure
(connect levels of government with a common
Parties act as the glue of our federal structure
1. Connect levels of government with a common bond -
basically you are a Republican or Democrat in the lower levels so still under our larger umbrella. Federal officials coordinate policies with their partisan supporters and elected officials in the states and local governments
Checking the Power of the Governing Party
Minority Party (check actions of party in power)
"Out" party, as they are not in government at the time, but they are impactful in the American system.
1. Party with fewer members in legislature
2. Check actions of party in power - they can work to influence the policy by the majority party, and can inspire opinions in the public about the governing party's positions of laws that they are passing, traditionally focusing on the shortcomings so they can have better success in succeeding elections so that they might become the governing majority party
Even though minor parties have had little success in national elections, they have played an important role in many elections by
influencing the public policy positions of the two major parties
Party with the most members - this is the "In" party that gets to make policies that it believes in (can be weakened, or complicated with divided government)
The system by which one office, contested by two or more candidates, is won by the single candidate who collects the most votes
Balancing Competing Interests
1. Political Parties are coalitions
People with various interests join together
Support a party's platform
2. Party Leaders adapt a broad view on issues
No group will feel alienated
3. Parties unify their members
Parties unify their members
this is the goal in mind, to bring these people together under one common banner, usually focusing on a few issues that they commonly agree upon and push to have their party win elections.
Get party members registered
Conduct drives for new voters
Party volunteers staff polling places
Throughout the 1970s, the general thrust of the Democratic rules commissions considering delegate selection was
weaken the influence of party leaders and enlarge the role of the rank and file.
The Party in the Electorate
Largest component of each party
Party identifiers ( Identify themselves as being a
member of a party)
Party activists (members who work for the party
may even become candidates for office)
The ideological groups, or reform clubs, of the 1950s and 1960s gave rise to ideological parties composed of
One reason why political parties in the United States today are weaker than in Europe is that, in the United States,
party leaders do not typically select people to run for office
In most states, candidates for office are chosen by
The federal system goes a long way toward explaining why U.S. parties are ________ than their European counterparts.
The key term in the definition of a political party is
label, to give a candidate party identification
What political parties do?
1. organize elected officials who share common policy objectives.
2. Providing an identification for voters to evaluate officials is an activity
3. Nominating candidates, working on campaigns, and mobilizing voters
4. Influencing public policies
The most distinguishing characteristic of American political parties has always been the
Which of the following statements about political parties in the United States is true?
Parties today are relatively weak, but they are not weak in all areas of the country.
Why People Join Political Parties
1. Solidarity Incentives (express mutual agreement
with other like)
2. Material Incentives
(Patronage - rewarding the party faithful with
government jobs or contacts)
3. Purposive Incentives
(Want to be actively promote a set of ideals
Jobs, grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support.
Practice of distributing government offices and contracts to the supporters of the winning party'also called the spoils system
the firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party and their replacement with loyalists of the newly elected party
The ________, a faction of the Republican party, were opposed to the patronage system and feared the influx of immigrants who could be incorporated into the political machine.
A(n) ______________________ _______________ is a set of interrelated institutions that link people with government
The Party Organization .
in theory parties are organized basically in a pyramid shape. Very similar to most large businesses and corporations. The leadership is at the top and there are employees at the lower levels.
Some elections stand out in history due to a sharp change in the existing party voting patterns. What situation then occurs that persists for subsequent elections?
Both parties are decentralized and fragmented
unlike parties in much of the rest of the world, parties in the U.S. are more loosely-knit and are decentralized and fragmented. There is a much looser chain of command. Lower level party organizations (state and local) are much more independent .
state party organizations from the same party are often different from one another from state to state.
What are the two central figures in the state party organization.
1.Central state committee: raises funds, recruit members, maintains the organization, support party members running for state offices.
2. chairperson choose by the committee
Who elects the chairperson for the Republican and Democratic national committees?
vary as well and are in all electoral districts that elected officials will be elected from.
1. Party unit for each district
There are three levels of an American political party; what are they?
1- Party in the Electorate- citizens who identify with a party
2- Party Organization- national leaders and activists who run the party independently
3- Party in Government- candidates and officeholders for parties who make polic
National Party Organization can divided
Congressional Campaign Committees
National Party Organization
the party leadership is varied, the president or, can be members of Congress . But there are four other sources of party leadership at the national level.
National Convention .
every four years during the presidential campaign. They have become increasingly large and extravagant and serve to not only provide exposure for prominent party members, but also newer members that might not have the notoriety yet.
As the American population grew and the electorate expanded by the 1820s, political parties invented the ____________________ ___________________ as a new way to nominate presidential candidates, the first of which was held in 1831.
The national convention meets every _____ years to nominate a presidential candidate.
National party conventions were developed as a reform of
A meeting of party followers at which convention delegates are picked is known as a
The makeup of state party caucuses can best be characterized as
Compared to primary voters, members of caucuses are
more likely to
support the most ideological candidate.
National convention delegates, compared to their respective party members, tend to be
more liberal if they are Democrats, more conservative if they are Republicans.
At party conventions in recent years, the ________ has (have)
become increasingly important.
policy interests of the party
In the days when party conventions were heavily influenced by party leaders and elected officials, it was relatively easy to ignore
the policy preferences of dissident factions.
these committees direct the business of the party between the Conventions.
A committee of a political party composed of party chairpersons and party officials form every state
Each party has a chairperson selected as the head of the party organization, not necessarily the party itself. Maybe think the Chief Operating Officer (COO) not the CEO. They direct the work of the Committee from their office in Washington D.C. (RNC Chairperson - Reince Priebus pronounced: Rynse Preebis) (DNC interim chairperson - Donna Brazile)
The number of convention delegates from each state, along with the rule is under which they are chosen, is determined by
the party's national committee.
Who selects the time and place of the national convention and issues a call for the convention?
A party's national committee
Between the national conventions party affairs are managed by a --------made up of delegates from each state and territory.
Congressional Campaign Committees
these are traditionally the purses for the DNC and RNC that serve to finance many campaigns for party affiliates. These are still huge contributors, but more private money is going into campaigns.
The Party in Government
once the party is given the reigns to government they have the ability to implement their party platform that they created at the Convention.
In Congress each party has a _______________ that helps members of Congress who are running for reelection or would be members seeking election
congressional campaign committee
What are the four important major party functions?
- Nominating candidates for election to public office
- Structuring the voting choice in elections
- Proposing alternative government programs
- Coordinating the actions of government officials
A party document, written at a national convention that contains party philosophy, principles, and positions on issues.
The statement of policies of a national political party
1. Represents official party position on various issues
2. Carried out when a party wins the presidency
Which of the following statements about parties in Congress is FALSE? -------B
a. The committee system in both houses of Congress is a result of the two-party system.
b. Assignment of individual members of Congress to committees is a party decision.
c. Only members of the majority party are allowed to take part in the election of the Speaker
of the House.
d. Granting permission to transfer to another committee is a party decision.
e. Advancement up the committee ladder toward chair is a party decision.
527 committees are an important part of the American political system because they
Nonprofit independent groups that receive and disburse funds to influence the nomination, election, or defeat of candidates are able to raise and spend unlimited amounts of money as long as they do not coordinate their activities with a political party.
. The majority of political action committees represent ________.
business and professional groups
The Self-Perpetuating Two-Party System
Election Laws Favor Two Parties
-Third parties need many signatures to get
candidates on the ballot
-Rules governing campaign financing favor the
major parties (>5% of the voting in election)
Political Action Committee (PAC)
A private group that raises and distributes funds for use in election campaigns.
Which of the following statements about the two
party system is correct?
The United States is one of the few countries with such a system.
One important cause of the United States' two-party system is
single-member electoral districts.
Which of the following statements is true?
Voting equipment varies from county to county throughout the United States.
What factors represent the two most convincing reasons why the United States has only two political parties?
Electoral system and political socialization
Which of the following is NOT a reform that has attempted to make voting easier? ------C
a. early voting
b. Election Day registration
c. voter ID laws
d. permanent absentee ballots
e. none of the above
major parties receive large sums of money for campaigning from the federal government, because they receive more than 5% of the vote in an election.
An effort by political candidates and their supporters to win the backing of donors, political activists, and voters in their quest for political office.
Institutional Barriers to Multiparty System
Winner-take-all feature of the Electoral College
Maurice Duverger (1954) - Duverger's "Law"
this is that each district in the U.S. elects one member from the district by a winner take all, first past the post, or plurality.
The most dramatic example of the winner take
all principle in the U.S. electoral system is the
The two party system has worked in the United States, but not in Europe, because
Americans agree on enough issues to form broad coalitions.
What is the difference between plurality and majority elections?
Plurality elections declare the person with the most votes as the winner; majority elections declare the person with more than half of the votes cast as the winner.
How does America's system of winner-take-all, single-member district elections preserve the two-party system?
One person represents one district, making it harder for minor parties emerge and have success.
Plurality electoral system in the United States means that
every party must be a broad-based coalition.
To win in a plurality system such as that in the United States, a candidate must
gather more votes than anyone else.
Why should elections based on a plurality system discourage new parties from forming?
Because under this winner take all system no incentive is given for finishing second (or lower)
Maurice Duverger (1954) - Duverger's Law
countries that use single member district plurality elections systems will tend to be two party systems, whereas countries that have proportional representation are more likely to have multiparty systems.
What are the three different kinds of party systems for democratic nations?
What is a One-Party system, and what are examples of countries with this system?
A single party is in total control.
ex) China, N. Korea, Iran
What is a Multiparty system, and what are examples of countries with this system?
A number of parties with widely different ideologies compete for political office.
ex) France, Italy, Israel
What is a Two-Party system, and what are examples of countries with this system?
Two major political parties compete for political office.
ex) United States, United Kingdom, India, Jamaica
What are the two reasons for why America has a two-party system?
A strong consensus on core political values; single member districts
A political system in which two major political parties compete for control of the government. Candidates from a third party have little chance of winning office
What are the advantages of the Third Party in American Politics?
Issue-oriented parties (formed to promote a
particular cause or timely issue)
Ideological parties (support a particular political
doctrine or set of beliefs)
Splinter or personality parties (develop out of a
split win a major party)
The Free Soil Party in 1848 was formed to oppose the expansion of slavery into western territories
True (issue oriented parties)
The Libertarian and Socialist parties in the United States are
in 1869 the Prohibition Party was formed to push for the banning of alcoholic beverages
True (Issue oriented parties)
The Rent is Too Damn High Party, founded in New York in 2005 pushing for, as the name suggests, that rent prices in New York are too high
True (Issue oriented parties)
The most long-lasting single-issue party is the _____________________ _________________, which was founded for one reason, but has recently shifted its platform toward other conservative positions.
The Green Party in America was formed in 1972 and has contested elections since, having relatively more success in some than others, most notably with Ralph Nader
True (issue oriented parties)
1. the Socialist Labor Party believe that the free market system should be replaced by workers control of the economy.
2. the Libertarian Party which opposes all government interference with personal liberties and private enterprise in the economy.
Splinter or personality parties
1. Develop out of a split with a major party - Theodore Roosevelt did this in 1912 forming the Bull Moose Party
2. personality parties - because they are figures that can inspire support based on their name or fame. Can also think of H. Ross Perot in 1996 with the Reform Party splintering from the Republican Party.
position statements on each specific issue in a party's platform
bull moose party
nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912
The Effects of Third Parties
i. Bring issues to the public's attention - those the major parties prefer to ignore.
ii. Third parties can affect the vote (spoilers) for other parties. Ross Perot was a spoiler for George H.W. Bush in 1992 that allowed Bill Clinton to win. Ralph Nader was a spoiler contributing to Al Gore's loss to George W. Bush in 2000.
iii. Provide a voice for dissatisfied Americans - those who do feel their interests are not addressed by the two major parties can find their interest represented by third parties.
In what years was there a relevant third-party or independent campaign for president?
1992, 1968, and 1980
Why should the Democrats have been so
unsuccessful in winning the
presidency before 1992 at the same time that they were so
successful in winning congressional seats?
Because their presidential candidates tended to be out of step with voters on issues of taxation and social policy
The most recent independent candidate for president who was able to get on the ballot in every state was
National elections are held in the United States the first Tuesday of November ________ year(s).
What are the legal barriers and obstacles for third parties in elections?
1. It is hard to get on the ballot since they need a petition with many signatures.
2. Historic tradition keeps America a two-party system.
3. America's winner-take-all format involving electoral votes
4. Single-member districts have poor representation.
5. Debate exclusion
i. Election held in even-numbered years
ii. Held on Tuesday after first Monday in November - in the general election we elect the president, vice president, senators and representatives. Presidents are elected every four years, senators every six years, and representatives are every two years
A(n) ________ does NOT coincide with a presidential election.----------------------------D
a. closed primary election
b. open primary election
c. franchise vote
d. midterm election
During midterm elections, voters are selecting ________.
members of Congress
In order for a political party to select a candidate to run in the general election, it holds a(n) ________.
The congressional elections that do not coincide with a presidential election; also called off-year elections.
The elections held to select a party's candidate for the general election
elections to select party nominees in which only people who have registered in advance with the party can vote for that party's candidates, thus encouraging greater party loyalty
A primary election in which the voter can wait until the day of the primary to choose which party to enroll in to select candidates for the general election.
elections to select party nominees in which voters can decide on election day whether they want to participate in Democratic or Republican contests
________ occurs when a voter must be registered with a party prior to voting in that party's election.
A closed primary
A majority system, which is used on a limited basis in the United States, requires that a candidate must win ________ to win an election.
50 percent plus one of all votes cast
Presidents are actually voted indirectly
Voters choose members an intermediate body called The Electoral College
-These 'electors' are chosen by the political
parties of the state
- Each state - as many E.C. votes as members in
the U.S. House and the Senate
Texas - 36 Representatives + 2 Senators = 38 EC votes
The ________ is the last example of indirect voting in national elections.
A type of electoral system in which, to win a seat in the parliament or other representative body, a candidate must receive a majority of all the votes cast in the relevant district.
Party activists who are elected to vote at a party's national convention are called ________.
A body of electors chosen by voters to cast ballots for president and vice president
How does the Electoral College work?
1. Winner-take-all system ( in most cases the candidate who receives the popular vote in each state receives all of the Electoral College votes from the state. The Constitution never stipulated that the electors must vote for the candidate with the popular vote, there is nothing lawfully limiting their discretion. But just common practice since as early as 1796 that they do so.
2. What it takes to win
270 is the magic number ( that is a majority of the 538 total Electoral College votes)
There have been two times in history where a candidate did not get the 270
in 1800 and 1824. In that case the House of Representatives votes on the candidates with each state getting one vote, and for vice president the Senate votes on the candidates with each state again getting one vote.
Which states do not distribute electoral votes on a winner-take-all basis?
Maine and Nebraska
If the winner of an election is whoever receives the most votes, regardless of the percentage of votes received, the candidates are running under a ________ system.
Which of the following statements is true?--------E
a. The American states vary dramatically in the competitiveness of presidential elections.
b. Most U.S. House seats are not electorally competitive.
c. No other democracy uses an electoral college to mediate between a national vote for presidential candidates and the actual winner.
d. A person becomes president when he or she receives 270 electoral votes.
e. all of the above
Nonelectoral forms of participation usually require more ________ than voting.
time, money, and effort
The Caucus System
early political parties meet in secret to discuss their party agenda. These meetings began to be known as party caucuses.
The death of "King Caucus"
before 1824 the party caucuses in Congress would actually meet to determine the party nominations for president and vice president. This process was seen undemocratic and called the King Caucus by opponents.
Prior to 1824, presidential candidates were nominated by
caucuses comprising of members of Congress
King Caucus" refers to
the use of each party's congressional caucus to nominate presidential candidates during the early nineteenth century.
Party Control Over Nominations
The Caucus System
The Death of "King Caucus"
During the earliest years of the United States, who nominated the candidates for president?
Nominations were controlled by each party's congressional caucus.
Early presidential primaries and caucuses are more important because they
can help a candidate secure media attention and financial support.
Official meeting of a political party to choose its candidates
Limits of the convention system
1972 (the parties began to democratize the convention process and allow normal voters to decide their party convention delegates in many states)
have citizens directly cast votes for their desired candidate to be nominated.
Since 1972, ideological differences between convention delegates and rank and file party voters have been greatest among
How can the differences between the two major parties in the United States best be characterized
There are large policy differences among activists and much smaller ones among the rank and file.
Party conventions emerged during the Jacksonian era as a means of
giving some measure of local control to the presidential nominating process.
For the presidential primaries, most but not all state parties use what type of election?
are ones where citizens cast votes for delegates who then select the candidates. The major parties use indirect primaries mostly for selecting the delegates to their convention.
The role of the states in Primary Election
states set up the primary elections, set the dates, administers them, and determines the rules.
meaning you can vote in whichever party's primary that you want
They system by which legislative seats are awarded to a party in proportion to the vote that party wins in an election
A multiple-member district system that allows each political party representation in proportion to its percentage of the total vote.
where voters can only vote in the primary for their designated party
can change or adopt a party membership on primary Election Day.
Texas has a kind of mixed primary, though more on the open side than closed. You can choose to vote for either party, but you must sign a pledge stating that you will not vote in another party's primary for a one year period.
Which of the following is a difference between Democratic and Republican primaries?
The Democratic Party requires that state presidential primaries allocate delegates on the basis of proportional representation while the Republican Party does not.
in many states and happen in the early part of the election year. Candidates try to perform early in these to gain media and citizen attention to their campaign.
party conventions held at the local level where delegates like at the national level select the candidate that the state wants as the presidential nominee. Modern caucuses are open to all party members.
Primaries - The Rush to be the First - states want to have a greater impact on the early campaign and be the grounds for candidate campaigning early on State's having their primaries early in the election year.
1. Super Tuesday - where several states hold their primary on the same day in early March
a. Republican primaries were held in Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, and Virginia.
b. Democratic primaries were held in Alabama, American Samoa, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, as well as for those who are Democrats abroad
The Impact or fear of Front-Loading in the primary is?
that this will arguably better support candidates who are abler to finance their campaigns, and richer candidates.
National Party Conventions
Delegates adopt the party's platform and nominate the presidential and vice-presidential candidates
The disadvantage of the new primary system that has developed in the United States is that it
increases the chances that the party will nominate a candidate who is unappealing to the average voter.
a candidate who runs against the party "establishment". This candidate can even be offering a very different platform than the party, but still contesting under the party label in the primary. Perhaps the biggest feature of the 2016 presidential campaign for both parties.
Primary elections were introduced by
reformers who hoped to weaken the power of party leaders.
Primary voters Characteristics
usually older, more politically involved, and tend to be stronger partisans
2016 Presidential Campaing
Parties Losing Control?
Bernie Sanders - Democrat
Donald Trump - Republican
Ted Cruz - Republican
Anti-Establishment or insurgent candidates
On both sides of the political
Both Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders have ideas outside of their party's. ( insurgent).
Even Ted Cruz, who seems more 'establishment' of the two Republican was himself call as insurgent candidate
The Modern Political Campaign staff
the political parties are no longer directly relied on for campaign activities as they once were, instead the organizations of the candidates and their office are charged with a multitude of duties during the campaign.
i. Raise funds
ii. Get media coverage
iii. Produce and pay for political ads
iv. Schedule the candidate's time effectively
v. Convey the candidate's position on the issues
vi. Opposition research
vii. Turnout the vote
A ________ is an effort by political candidates and their staffs to win backing and support by voters in the quest for political office
Campaign consultants do all of the following EXCEPT ________. E
a. conduct public-opinion polls
b. organize direct mailings
c. develop the issues on which the candidate will focus
d. produce television commercials
e. print ballots for the election
In contemporary politics, local election campaigns tend to be ________, while statewide elections tend to be ________.
organizationally driven and labor intensive; media driven and capital intensive
The themes, issues, and messages that candidates present during a campaign are generally based on
polls and focus groups.
Republican Versus Republican
In the 2012 season there was really no need to find much opposition research on Obama because most of that had been done already in 2008, so they took to doing so against their own party competition in the primaries.
In 2016, Democratic challenger Bernie Sanders was actually the most successful at generating funds on the internet
Local Support Groups
local volunteer organizations to gain support and get votes, campus organizations that are meant to register students on college campuses and inspire support for candidates.
Professional political consultants
manage nearly all aspects of a presidential candidate's campaign - develop specified skills in different areas of the campaign like polls, advertising, or speeches, and work together to develop the whole campaign strategy.
In contemporary American politics a considerable amount of time and effort is spent by political campaign organizations and employees in finding as much negative information about a candidate's opponents as possible
The Cain Takedown - biggest example of opposition
the revelation of Herman Cain's alleged sexual assault of two women when he was head of the National Restaurant Association. Cain stated that the allegations was clearly coming from other Republicans to get him out of the race, but it was never proven.
Attempts to define Mitt Romney -. Cold hearted
during the 2012 primaries and general election on defining as a cold hearted businessman head of a financial firm Bain Capital responsible for predatory capitalism and sending U.S. jobs overseas, making him seem to have no real concern for ordinary American citizens
Attempts to Define Ted Cruz -
The Trump campaign in particular needed for their candidate to be the real anti-establishment candidate, thus they needed to pain their biggest challenger in Ted Cruz as being part of the Washington establishment, relying on the fact that he was an elected official at the time as a U.S. Senate
the 2008 election showed the country that Obama gained a significant edge over the competition the internet. This has created a political world that now candidates must present and maintain a strong online presence to be successful in winning American elections. Twitter - Trump: 15 million, Clinton: 11 million, Obama: 75.8 million (60.1 at the time of his election)
Fund-Raising on the Internet
Internet fund-raising grew out of direct mail campaigns
Email is cost effective
Obama took internet fund-raising to a new level in 2008
2016 - Successful for Sanders, somewhat for Clinton and Trump
Targeting Supporters; Microtargeting
Collecting information as possible about voters in a giant database and then filtering out various groups for special attention
Pioneered by George W. Bush's chief political advisor, Karl Rove, in 2004
By 2008, microtargeting was employed by all major candidates
ii. Obama campaign
1. Use of Facebook, YouTube, and My.BarackObama.com (personal website in 2008 over one million members) - by June 2008 Barack Obama had over 953, 000 Facebook supporters compared to 142, 000 for John McCain. On YouTube Barack Obama's videos had over 50 million views compared to McCain's 4 million. Again in 2012 Obama had seven times the number of Facebook supporters as Romney at 28 Million versus 4 Million for Romney. But the biggest push was to turn this online support to actual voters, a particularly difficult challenge for Obama as the citizens that were the least likely to vote supported Obama two to one.
The Policymaking Process Steps
1. Issue Identification
2. Agenda Setting
3. Policy Formation and Adoption
4. Policy Implementation
5. Policy Evaluation
Identify the problem that needs to be solved politically.
Issues can be raised by a number of sources, the media, individuals, politicians, sometimes even people outside of the country.
Placing the issue on the political agenda
Which stage of the public policy process
includes identification of problems in need of
Agenda setting can be formally getting an issue or a bill put on the agenda, or more likely, simply getting the buzz going among the public or the media that an issue needs to be addressed by the government in some fashion.
Policy Formation and Adoption
The actual way we plan to fix a problem
whether it be a legislative bill formally written, a president pushing forward an executive action, or an administrative agency adopting a new set of regulations. This is how we plan to fix a problem.
Policies are adopted by government bodies for future implementation.
*An example of policymaking is when the President and his staff draft and pass a new crime bill.
the approval of a policy proposal by the people with the requisite authority , such as a legislature
The stage of the policymaking process during which formal proposals are developed and adopted
Administering the formal policy
The process of carrying out public policy through governmental agencies and the courts
Adopted policies are put into effect.
the federal system in US for policy implementation, requires cooperation between many different levels of government to implement most policies. No matter where the policy comes from (the executive, legislature, bureaucracy). Also, the courts will make sure the policy is constitutional.
Public policy ________.
requires multiple actors and branches to
Feedback on the policy (formal or informal)
-congressional hearings (formal) get feedback on
- impactful is the public and media's evaluation of
the policy, asking whether the policy being
implemented is actually solving the problem
that it was intended to solve (informal).
the process of determining whether a course of action is achieving its intended goal
Where do Policymakers get their information to help them make policies
from the national media. Finally, various lobbying groups provide information to members of Congress.
joint federal-state program to provide healthcare subsidies to low-income persons
More than 60 million people on the program
State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP)
covers children in families with modest incomes too high to qualify for Medicaid
is the federal government's health-care program for persons over 65
the government's second largest domestic spending program
By 2030, the 65 and older population is expected to double
Setting aside Social Security and Medicare,
other entitlement programs in the U.S.
constitute over half the budget
Democrats Propose Universal Coverage (Obamacare)
Congress Addresses the Issue
Congress Addresses the Issue
1. Employer-provided health insurance
2. Large employers who did not offer plan would
3. Medicaid available to those about 1.5x federal
poverty level (In 2016 - $20,160 for a family of 3)
4. Health Insurance Exchange
5. Individual Mandate
6. Public Option
All three of these things were consistent among all proposals to reforming health-care policy in the U.S.
1. Employer-provided health insurance
2. Large employers who did not offer plan would
3. Medicaid available to those about 1.5x federal
All three of these things were consistent among all proposals to reforming health-care policy in the U.S. The differences came from the following three options:
1. Health Insurance Exchange
2. Individual Mandate
3. Public Option
Health Insurance Exchange
this was the establishment of a new health-insurance marketplace that allows individuals and employers to shop and compare health care plans.
this was the provision that individual citizens would be required to have some base level of medical insurance, or could incur a tax penalty. Middle and lower income individuals could qualify for government subsidies to help pay for health insurance
Health Care Policy Opposition
1. Greatest opposition came from conservatives
2. Concern over the growing power of government
in general (the fear of having a completely
socialized health-care system like those that we
see in countries like Canada, Great Britain, and in
fact, most industrialized countries in the world)
the most controversial plan for the establishment of a government sponsored and run insurance service that would compete with private insurance companies in the Health Insurance Exchange system. This option was actually rejected by the U.S. Senate and did not become part of the Affordable Care Act.
Health-Care Policy Expected Results
Most important provisions took place in 2014
Provisions in place:
Up to 26 years old on parents plans
Subsidies for smaller employers
January 1, 2014 - an estimated 32 million Americans who do not have health insurance gained coverage
Subsidies for small employers who provide insurance to their employees - the larger companies are required to provide them or face a penalty, but smaller businesses are not required, they are just given the incentive of these subsidies to do so.
The Conservative Reaction to the health care policy
1. Conservatives argued that the Democrats had
ignored the will of the people
2.This is the policy evaluation phase
3. Supreme Court
National Federation of Independent Business v.
4. Conservative actions in the legislature
5. Attempted removal in 2017
public opinion for Obamacare was generally low throughout the formation process, and even after it had been passed. Interestingly enough though, support for the individual provisions of the Affordable Care Act are quite high, just taken as a whole, and called Obamacare drives down opinions of the policy.
This is the policy evaluation phase - the only difficulty is that the policy has delayed implementation for a lot of its provisions.
Supreme Court rules on the individual mandate - the U.S. Supreme Court did decide that the individual mandate was constitutional
Conservative actions in the legislature - Since the time of the passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2009 Republican legislators have brought forth a motion in the legislature to repeal Obamacare or defund the policy more than 60 times. Each time with no success. Many of these came after the Supreme Court's decision. The government shutdown we observed during this semester found its foundations in the matter of not passing a federal budget that would fund the provisions for the Affordable Care Act.
The Problem of Imported Oil
1. We import 42% of our petroleum supply
2. Potential problem: many exporting nations are
not particularly friendly to the U.S.
3. The Price of Oil
2008 spike - $4.00/gallon
4. Fuel Efficiency Standards (in the 1970s after the
fuel price increases the federal government
began to start setting fuel mileage standards
on cars and trucks sold in the United States).
2009 - Obama called for higher standards
By 2016 - 39 mpg for cars, 30 for light trucks
Which country do we get most of our foreign oil from
Canada! More than a third of our foreign oil comes from our friendly neighbor to the north, almost double what comes from Saudi Arabia.
Global Warming/Climate Change
Scientific community's near consensus on climate
Observed warming is due largely to natural causes
Attitudes have become highly politicized
No common ground in Congress among those who even agree in its existence
believe that any observed warming is due largely to natural causes and may not continue into the future
The public's concern for global warming is increasing. Now 64% of Americans are worried a great deal about climate change. Likewise, 65% of Americans also believe that climate change is primarily caused by human activities.
3. Attitudes have become highly politicized
There is no common ground among congressional Republicans and Democrats on how to reduce global warming - even among those that acknowledge the existence of climate change, the myriad of suggestions for how to fix the problem, or curb the carbon emissions of the U.S. are nowhere near consensus. There is some agreement that we should limit greenhouse emissions, but the way we do that is not decided.
New Energy Sources
Expanded Supplies of Oil and Natural Gas
1. In 2011, U.S. exports of petroleum products
exceeded imports for the first time since 1949
2. The Natural Gas Boom
Supplies of natural gas increased
Coal became uncompetitive
3.Fracking (extraction technique has become more
Twenty states produce natural gas through fracking
Not without concerns: water supply
Fracking - or hydraulic fracturing
this process involves pumping high pressure water sand and chemicals into the ground where oil and gas are between layers of earth. The pressure breaks these apart and the oil and gas can be collected
Expanded supply of Oil and Gas (cont)
Was prohibited by the federal government for 20 years
2008 - Republicans demanded new areas for drilling
2010 - Obama proposed opening the Atlantic seaboard for drilling
April 2010 - a drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico exploded and resulted in the largest oil spill in American history
1. Concern over possible dangers and difficulty of
storing nuclear fuel
Nuclear waste recycling - France, Japan (pre
2. No new plants have been built in 30 years
3. As of 2010, construction of new plants has
support of most Republicans and some
Democrats, including Obama
4. Nuclear crisis in Japan (a 2011 9.0 earthquake off
the Pacific coast of Japan cause a tsunami which
led to three nuclear reactors flooding and
Goals and Terms of Economic Policy
1. Economic policy - consists of all actions taken by
the government to address the ups and downs
of the nation's level of business activity
2. Recession - a period when the economy stops
growing and undergoes a contraction
3. Unemployment - the most important indicator of
4. Inflation - the sustained rise in average prices
the most recent recession
was from December 2007 to about June 2009 when the economy technically started growth again, though nearly all economists still believe this is not over because the American economy is still not back to fully functioning.
The rate of unemployment is measured by
a government survey; people without a job, and who are actively looking for one - it is important to note that this does not include those that are working part time but seeking full-time employment, a figure that has grown in the past decade especially
is a sustained rise in average prices - this corresponds with the devaluation of the U.S. dollar currency. Basically a dollar cannot purchase what it used to.
The government has two main tools to deal with the issues of unemployment and inflation:
monetary and fiscal policy
how the U.S. government can use the production of money to affect the economy.
Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling the money supply and thus interest rates.
is how the government can expand or contract government spending, and also increase or decrease taxation
Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling taxing and spending.
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