Fast Track 7 + 8
Terms in this set (100)
acid mine drainage
refers to the acidic water that is created when sulphide minerals are exposed to air and water and, through a natural chemical reaction, produce sulphuric acid
active solar energy
a system of putting the sun's energy to use in which a series of collectors absorbs the solar energy, and pumps or fans distribute the collected heat
advanced light-water reactors
built in safety features to make explosions or the release of radioactive emissions almost impossible
highly desirable fuel because of its high heat content and low sulfur content; supplies are limited in most areas. Relatively new to the coal field.
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge - the largest refuge in the U.S. covering nearly 20 million acres in northeastern Alaska. Some believe it contains significant petroleum deposits.
raw material mined from the earth we use to make aluminum
processed fuel made from vegetable oil or animal fats which can be used in unmodified diesel engines
energy from plant material, including undigested fiber in animal waste, used as fuel
a neutron-absorbing rod that helps control a nuclear reaction by limiting the number of free neutrons
the most common form of coal; produces a high amount of heat and is used extensively by electric power plants.
the sales weighted average fuel economy.Fuel economy is defined as the average mileage traveled by an automobile per gallon of gasoline (or equivalent amount of other fuel) consumed as measured in accordance with the testing and evaluation protocol set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
a chemical reaction or other process in which the products themselves promote or spread the reaction, which under certain conditions may accelerate dramaticallythe generation of electricity and other energy jointly, especially the utilization of the steam left over from electricity generation to produce heat
nuclear power plant in Russia that had an explosion in 1986 & released radioactive materials into the air
the generation of electricity and other energy jointly, especially the utilization of the steam left over from electricity generation to produce heat
petroleum as it comes out of the ground and before it has been refined or processed into useful products
form into a hard outer layer
divergent plate boundary
a boundary where the plates are moving away from each other
using less energy, as for example, by reducing energy use and waste
using less energy to accomplish a given task
coal, oil, natural gas, and other fuels that are ancient remains of plants and animals
separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point (and hence chemical composition) by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column
nuclear fuel contained in a long thin-walled tube, an array of such tubes forming the core of a nuclear reactor
General Mining Law of 1872
authorizes and governs prospecting and mining for economic minerals, such as gold, platinum, and silver, on federal public lands
the use of energy from Earth's interior for either space heating or generation of electricity
high-level radioactive waste
Extremely toxic nuclear waste, such as spent fuel elements from commercial reactors
hydrogen fuel cell
a device that combines hydrogen gas and oxygen gas fuel to produce electricity and water vapor, which is emitted to the troposphere; twice as efficient as internal combustible engines and are easy to manage; problem is it's very expensive
light-water nuclear reactor
the most common type of nuclear reactor (LWR), A common type of commercial nuclear reactor that uses ordinary (light) water as the moderator; Cold water from a local source is used to condense the steam, and that warm water is returned to the environment (thermal pollution)
the type of coal of the poorest quality; also called brown coal
liquefied natural gas (LNG)
mixture oil liquefied propane and butane gas removed from natural gas and used as a fuel
a naturally occurring chemical element/inorganic compound that exists as a solid w a regularly repeating internal pattern of atoms/ions
slows down the neutrons that produce fission so that they are traveling at the right speed to trigger another fission
any method of surface coal mining that destroys a mountaintop or ridgeline
a window that is divided into sections known as panes. Originally, the meaning pertained to sectioned glass windows in walls.
a mixture of hydrocarbon gases that occur with petroleum deposits
a nuclear reaction in which nuclei combine to form more massive nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy
a place where some crude material, as sugar or petroleum, is purified
oil extracted from oil shale by heating
an organization founded in 1960 of nations that export large amounts of petroleum: formed to establish oil-exporting policies and set prices
The type of surface mining used depends on two factors: the resource being sought and the local topography.
rock that contains a large enough concentration of a particular mineral—often a metal—to make it profitable for mining and processing
In surface mining, gigantic mechanized equipment strips away the overburden, the soil and rock overlying a useful mineral deposit
passive solar energy
a system of putting the sun's energy to use without requiring mechanical devices to distribute the collected heat
loose, unconsolidated, brownish mass of partially decayed plant matter; a precursor to coal
pebble-bed modular reactors
smaller reactors that minimize the chances of runaway chain reactions in nuclear fusion
Chemicals, obtained from crude oil, that are used in the production of such diverse products as fertilizers, plastics, paints, pesticides, medicines, and synthetic fibers.
cells, usually made of specially-treated silicon, that transfer solar energy from the sun to electrical energy
Resources that have been identified and from which a usable mineral can be extracted profitably at present prices with current mining technology
the process by which ore is melted to separate the useful metal from other elements
cyanide solutions mining
the practice of spraying cyanide solutions on piles of crushed ore to dissolve and extract gold
the extraction of mineral and energy resources from deep underground deposits
surface (strip) mining
the extraction of mineral and energy resources near Earth's surface by first removing the soil, subsoil, and overlying rock strata
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977
requires mining companies to restore most surface-mined land by grading and replanting it
solar power tower
A solar thermal system that uses a central receiver system. Huge arrays of computer controlled mirrors called heliostats track the sun and focus sunlight on a central heat collection tower. Normally seen in deserts.
a liquid or gaseous fuel that is synthesized from coal and other naturally occurring resources and used in place of oil or natural gas
clay and sand with heavy oil in it
thick massive slabs that move slowly across the surface
Three Mile Islands
Was the worst accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant history; Resulted in the release of small amounts of radioactive gases and radioactive iodine into the environment
plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
Using wind turbines, people can harness the power of the wind. Natural wind is used to spin the blades, which are connected to a shaft inside the turbine, which then powers a generator and provides electricity.
Yucca Mountain, Nevada
a mountain in Nevada; proposed to open the first high-level radioactive waste repository in the world; delayed due to safety and security concerns and probably will not be opened any time soon
A comprehensive term for the various ways acidic compounds precipitate from the atmosphere and deposit onto surfaces. It can include: 1) wet deposition by means of acid rain, fog, and snow; and 2) dry deposition of acidic particles (aerosols).
reactive organic compounds that contribute to local and regional ozone production, and also act as the precursors of peroxyacetyl nitrates. Their major atmospheric fate is reaction with hydroxyl radicals or photolysis.
Materials (chemicals) that have the ability to neutralize acids. Examples include the calcium carbonate that is present in many soils and rocks. These materials may lessen potential adverse effects of acid rain.
a converter that uses a platinum-iridium catalyst to oxidize pollutants and carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide and water
group of chemical compounds used in refrigerators, air conditioners, foam packaging, and aerosol sprays that may enter the atmosphere and destroy ozone
Clean Air Act
establishes primary and secondary air quality standards, limits the amount of pollution put into the air
Commonly used unit to measure the concentration of ozone. One Dobson unit is equivalent to a concentration of 1 ppb ozone.
An electrical device used in removing particles from combustion gases prior to release from a power plant's stack.
global climate change
describes trends and variations in Earth's climate
Gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and ozone in the atmosphere which are involved in the greenhouse effect
compounds similar to CFCs, in which bromine or fluorine atoms replace some or all of the chlorine atoms
heat island effect
A phenomenon that occurs in developed areas where the replacement of natural land cover with paving, buildings, roads, parking lots, and other structures result in an increase in outdoor temperatures.
Chemicals containing hydrogen, fluorine, and carbons, produced as potential substitutes for CFCs
any of several organic compounds composed of hydrogen, fluorine, and carbon; produced synthetically and are used primarily as refrigerants
indoor air pollution
- can accumulate and increase in concentration until they are far more concentrated than they are in outdoor air
- most have no odor which makes them impossible to notice in high concentrations
Controlling global warming by setting greenhouse gas emissions targets for developed countries
atmospheric layer above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere
is the chemical once used by Florida tomato growers that has been found to be harmful to the ozone layer.
Phase out of ozone depleting substances (CFC"S)
oxides of nitrogen (NOx)
a mixture of gases that are composed of nitrogen and oxygen
oxides of sulfur (SOx)
compounds of sulfur and oxygen molecules; the pre- dominant form found in the lower atmosphere
a colorless unstable toxic gas with a pungent odor and powerful oxidizing properties, formed from oxygen by electrical discharges or ultraviolet light. It differs from normal oxygen (O2) in having three atoms in its molecule (O3)
describes two related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions
a region of marked thinning of the ozone layer in high latitudes, chiefly in winter, attributed to the chemical action of chlorofluorcarbons and other atmospheric pollutants
region of the stratosphere that contains a concentration of ozone sufficient to block most ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
a small discrete mass of solid or liquid matter that remains individually dispersed in gas or liquid emissions (usually considered to be an atmospheric pollutant)
peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs)
powerful respiratory and eye irritants present in photochemical smog
the chemical reaction of sunlight, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, which leaves airborne particles and ground-level ozone
polar stratospheric clouds
facilitate conditions that allow those ozone-depleting reactions to destroy ozone at an unusually high rate
polluting compounds that come directly out of the smoke-stack, exhaust pipe, or natural emission source (ex., CO, CO2, SO2, NOX, most PM and VOCs)
naturally occurring colorless, odorless, radioactive gas, found in some types of soil and rock, can seep into homes and buildings, formed from the decay of uranium (U), causes lung cancer
Rowland & Molina
-ozone is being depleted by the presence of CFCs
-CFCs emitted in the lower atmosphere by human activity are very stable and unreactive (long ART)
-CFCs eventually wander upward and enter the stratosphere, where they may be destroyed by the high energy UV radiation to produce chlorine.
-The very active chlorine released may enter reactions that deplete ozone in the stratosphere.
-The result of the depletion of ozone is an increase in the amount of UVB radiation that reaches Earth's surface.
air pollution control device where particles are "scrubbed"
from the exhaust stream by water droplets; the water-particle "sludge" is collected and processed for disposal; also used to reduce SO2 emissions, and sometimes ionizes particles to improve efficiency
primary pollutants that have undergone transformation in the presence of sunlight, water, oxygen, or other compounds (ex., O3, acid deposition [sulfate, nitrate])
the term used to describe when building occupants experience health-related problems that appear to be connected to the amount of time spent in a building
layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere and below the mesosphere; contains the ozone layer
atmospheric condition in which warm air traps cooler air near the earth's surface
atmospheric layer above the mesosphere
layer of the atmosphere extending from the earth's surface up to about 10 km above the earth's surface. All of the earth's weather occurs in this layer, and air density is highest
volatile organic compound (VOC)
organic compounds that become vapors at typical atmospheric termperatures; caused by evaporation of fuels, solvents, paints, and improper combustion of gasoline