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a city state in ancient Greece, esp. as considered in its ideal form for philosophical purposes.


a citadel or fortified part of an ancient Greek city, typically built on a hill.


a public open space used for assemblies and markets.


a member of a class of serfs in ancient Sparta, intermediate in status between slaves and citizens.


a heavily armed foot soldier of ancient Greece.


excessive pride or self-confidence


a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.


statesman: a man who is a respected leader in national or international affairs

tyrant a cruel and oppressive ruler.

a cruel and oppressive ruler.


Cleisthenes (Κλεισθένης, also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was a noble Athenian of the Alcmaeonid family. He is credited with reforming the constitution of ancient Athens and setting it on a democratic footing in 508/7 BC. ...

direct democracy

- form of democracy in which people decide


each of the nine chief magistrates in ancient Athens.


Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athens' political and cultural supremacy in Greece; he ordered the construction of the Parthenon (died in 429 BC)

Peloponnesian League

The Peloponnesian League was an alliance in the Peloponnesus from the 6th to the 4th centuries BC.

The odyssey

poem written by homer


ancient Athenian philosopher; pupil of Socrates; teacher of Aristotle

lyric poetry

Lyric poems typically express personal or emotional feelings and is traditionally the home of the present tense. They have specific rhyming schemes and are often, but not always, set to music or a beat. ...


one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers; pupil of Plato; teacher of Alexander the Great


the ancient Greek known as the father of history; his accounts of the wars between the Greeks and Persians are the first known examples of historical writing


the power of the mind to think, understand, and form judgments by a process of logic.


reasoning conducted or assessed according to strict principles of validity.


- ancient Greek historian remembered for his history of the Peloponnesian War

Alexander the great

Alexander: king of Macedon; conqueror of Greece and Egypt and Persia; founder of Alexandria


of or relating to Greek history, language, and culture from the death of Alexander the Great to the defeat of Cleopatra and Mark Antony by Octavian in 31 BC. During this period Greek culture flourished, spreading through the Mediterranean and into the Near East and Asia and centering on Alexandria in Egypt and Pergamum in Turkey.


greek geometer


Greek mathematician and physicist noted for his work in hydrostatics and mechanics and geometry


Greek mathematician and physicist noted for his work in hydrostatics and mechanics and geometry

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