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AP US History Review: Junior Fall Semester Exam (1492-1932)
Terms in this set (342)
Significance of 1491 - 1607 as the dates for period 1?
1491 is one year prior to the arrival of Columbus and Europeans, and 1607 is the year England established a permanent settlement at Jamestown
a series of interactions and adaptations among societies across the Atlantic, including plants, animals, disease, people, etc.
Columbian Exchange, from _______ to ________: smallpox, livestock (pigs, cows, sheep), bees, bananas, coffee, sugar
Columbian Exchange, from "Old World" to Americas
What was the 'encomienda system'?
In the economies of the Spanish colonies, Indian labor was used to support plantation-based agriculture and extract precious metals and other resources. EX: sugar, silver
European goods that transformed Native life (Name three)
Horses - improved hunting and warfare for Natives (especially in the Great Plains and Basin), weapons and alcohol helped increase the destructiveness of warfare
American goods that transformed European life (list two or more)
Maize, potatoes, and other crops - helped increase European population and the shift from feudalism to capitalism
How did Europeans justify the subjugation of Africans and Natives?
White racial superiority, Bible, view of groups as "savages"
European exploration and conquest were fueled by...(Three G's)
a desire for new sources of wealth, increased power and status, and converts to Christianity. (god, glory, gold)
Impact in Europe of new crops from the Americas?
European population growth (particularly from corn and potatoes)
What was the economic impact in Europe of new resources and sources of wealth from the Americas?
Began the economic shift from feudalism to capitalism
Who was Christopher Columbus?
Italian explorer who "discovers America" in 1492 when searching for a sea route to the Far East .
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state or hereditary noble class
What is a business owned by shareholders that invested in exploration and colonization, which enables more investors to profit with less risk?
What was Juan de Sepúlveda's position on Spanish treatment of Native Americans?
He was the Spaniard who supported the Spanish Empire's right of conquest and colonization in the New World. Sepúlveda also argued in favor of the Christianization of Native Americans, believing them racially inferior and child-like.
What was Bartolomé de Las Casas's position on Spanish treatment of Native Americans?
He fought against the enslavement and colonial abuse of Native Americans.
Describe the Enlightenment
Philosophy focused on reason and promoting new forms of government (Locke, Montesquieu); influenced the American Revolution
Economic policy that focuses on making $ for the mother country. It favors a positive balance of trade for the mother country and the accumulation of gold and silver
What did European colonization efforts in North America stimulate?
Intercultural contact and intensified conflict between the various groups of colonizers and native peoples.
What led to colonial resistance to Britain?
Britain's desire to maintain a viable North American empire in the face of growing internal challenges and external competition inspired efforts to strengthen its imperial control, stimulating increasing resistance from colonists who had grown accustomed to a large measure of autonomy.
What were general characteristics of Spanish colonization?
Spain sought to establish tight control over the process of colonization and to religiously convert and/or exploit the native population.
What was the general character of French and Dutch colonization?
French and Dutch colonial efforts involved relatively few Europeans and used trade alliances and intermarriage with American Indians to acquire furs and other products for export to Europe.
What was the general character of English colonization?
Unlike their European competitors, the English eventually sought to establish colonies based on agriculture, sending relatively large numbers of men and women to acquire land and populate their settlements, while having relatively hostile relationships with American Indians.
How did the European colonial powers differ regarding intermarriage with native populations?
Unlike Spanish, French, and Dutch colonies, which accepted intermarriage and cross-racial sexual unions with native peoples (and, in Spain's case, with enslaved Africans), English colonies attracted both males and females who rarely intermarried with either native peoples or Africans, leading to the development of a rigid racial hierarchy.
What factors led to the emergence of the Atlantic slave trade?
The abundance of land, a shortage of indentured servants, the lack of an effective means to enslave native peoples, and a growing European demand for colonial goods led to the emergence of the Atlantic slave trade.
Define indentured servitude
System of labor in which a company or individual paid a person's passage to America in return for a contract of repayment through servitude (usually seven years).
Define chattel slavery
A chattel slave is an enslaved person who is owned for ever and whose children and children's children are automatically enslaved. Chattel slaves are individuals treated as complete property, to be bought and sold.
What was the Middle Passage?
the brutal journey of slaves in bondage across the Atlantic to America.
Describe slavery in the British colonies
Reinforced by a strong belief in British racial and cultural superiority, the British system enslaved black people in perpetuity (forever), altered African gender and kinship relationships in the colonies, and was one factor that led the British colonists into violent confrontations with American Indians.
What happened in Jamestown in 1607? What problems did they confront, and what ultimately saved them from total ruin?
first permanent English colony in North America, founded in Virginia in 1607 - 13 years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth in Massachusetts - Initially, the settlers spent too much time trying to find gold and neglected to prepare for the winter. The "Starving Time" of 1609-10 saw 80% of the settlers die. Only after several more shipments of immigrants and the widespread adoption of TOBACCO cultivation did the colony begin to thrive.
How did Africans resist slavery?
Africans developed both overt and covert means to resist the dehumanizing aspects of slavery. Resistance to slavery included rebellion, sabotage, and escape. Rebellion was the least common, usually unsuccessful, and resulted in harsher conditions for other slaves
What was the Stono Rebellion, and what was its impact?
South Carolina slave revolt in 1739 that prompted the colonies to pass stricter laws regulating the movement of slaves and the capture of runaways.
What was the New York Conspiracy of 1741?
An alleged plot by slaves and poor whites to burn New York. Over 170 people were arrested for association in the plot. Most were hanged, burned to death, or deported.
Describe the general characteristics of the New England colonies
The New England colonies, founded primarily by Puritans seeking to establish a community of likeminded religious believers, developed a close-knit, homogeneous society and — aided by favorable environmental conditions — a thriving mixed economy of agriculture and commerce.
What was the Mayflower Compact, 1620?
The Mayflower Compact, signed by 41 English colonists on the ship Mayflower on November 11, 1620, was an early step toward written frameworks of government in what is now the United States. The compact was drafted to prevent dissent among Puritans and non-separatist Pilgrims who had landed at Plymouth a few days earlier.
Who were the Puritans?
English Protestants who wanted to create a "community of saints" or "city upon a hill" that would serve as a model of Christianity. Often seen as the beginning of "American Exceptionalism" - the idea that America has a unique story, or God-given destiny
Explain the migration of Puritans to Massachusetts, 1630's and 1640's
Beginning with 700 people led by Governor John Winthrop, a great migration of Puritans from England brought over 20,000 people—mostly families— to New England over a ten-year period. No group has played a more pivotal role in shaping American values than the New England Puritans. The Puritans contributed to our country's sense of mission, its work ethic (emphasizing the idea that God rewards hard work), and its moral sensibility.
Who was Roger Williams and what did he do?
Colonial leader who was banished from Salem, MA for holding unorthodox views. Founded colony of Rhode Island based on religious toleration, separation of church and state, and political democracy. Lead to immigration into Rhode Island of persecuted religious groups and built a foundation of values (like religious freedom) that the U.S. would later be founded upon.
Explain the Salem Witch Trials, 1692
The Salem witch trials occurred in colonial Massachusetts between 1692 and 1693. More than 200 people were accused of practicing witchcraft—the Devil's magic—and 20 were executed. Eventually, the colony admitted the trials were a mistake and compensated the families of those convicted. Since then, the story of the trials, and the term "witch hunt," has become synonymous with paranoia and injustice - for example, during the McCarthyism period of the Second Red Scare during the late 1940s and 1950s.
Describe the general characteristics of the Middle Colonies
The demographically, religiously, and ethnically diverse middle colonies supported a flourishing export economy based on cereal crops (wheat, corn, barley, etc)
Who was William Penn?
Penn established Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers, guaranteeing liberty of conscience and granting freemen the right to alter the government. Founded by William Penn, 1681 who received a colonial charter from King Charles II in payment of a debt owed to Penn's father.
Describe the Chesapeake colonies (Virginia and Maryland) and North Carolina
they relied on the cultivation of tobacco, a labor-intensive product based on white indentured servants and African chattel.
Describe the general characterstics of the British West Indies and the Southern Colonies (South Carolina & Georgia)
The colonies along the southernmost Atlantic coast and the British islands in the West Indies took advantage of long growing seasons by using slave labor to develop economies based on staple crops; in some cases, enslaved Africans constituted the majority of the population.
Define headright system
The grant of 50 acres of land for each settler brought to Virginia by a colonist. Established a pattern of small wealthy planter elite and a large, landless, powerless majority that would characterize politics/society in the South until the Civil War and beyond.
What did the Molasses Act of 1733 do?
A British law that established a tax on imports of molasses, sugar, and rum from non-British colonies. The law was loosely enforced and New England imported great quantities of West Indian sugar for manufacturing rum. Example of mercantilism
As a way of ignoring British restrictions on colonial trade, colonists engaged in widespread smuggling. Smugglers who got caught were often often freed by sympathetic American juries.
How did Europeans help increase the intensity and destructiveness of American Indian warfare?
By supplying American Indian allies with deadlier weapons and alcohol, and by rewarding Indian military actions
What was King Phillip's War and what caused it?
The last significant effort by the Indians of southern New England to drive away English settlers. The Indians were led by Metacom, the Pokunoket chief whom English setters called "King Philip."
What was the Pueblo Revolt of 1680?
An uprising of Indians in Santa Fe against Spanish colonization. The Pueblo killed 400 Spanish and drove the remaining 2,000 settlers out of the province. Twelve years later the Spanish returned and were able to reoccupy New Mexico with little opposition. However, the Spanish were more accommodating of Indian culture afterwards
Explain the triangular trade
A system of trade between Africa, Europe, and American colonies that involved slaves, cash crops, and manufactured goods.
What factors promoted Anglicization in the British colonies?
the growth of autonomous political communities based on English models, the development of commercial ties and legal structures, the emergence of a trans-Atlantic print culture, Protestant evangelism, religious toleration, and the spread of European Enlightenment ideas.
What was the House of Burgesses, created in 1619?
The first elected lawmaking body in North America, established by the Virginia Company to allow representative government in Virginia.
Define the Navigation Acts
Attempt by England to assert its control over American trade by passing a series of laws that regulated colonial trade to England's benefit.
Define and explain the impact of salutary neglect
Unofficial British policy of non-enforcement of trade laws. Salutary neglect lasted throughout most of the 1600s and 1700s. Considered good because the colonies grew economically and learned to govern themselves
What was Bacon's Rebellion, 1676?
Armed rebellion in Virginia against Governor William Berkeley, who had the support of the British government. Forces from England came to Virginia to suppress the resistance and reform the colonial government to one that was more directly under royal control.
Explain the impact of the First Great Awakening, 1730s-1760s
Evangelical religious revival that swept through Britain's North American colonies. The Great Awakening strengthened beliefs in religious freedom and challenged the status of established churches.
Explain the French and Indian War, 1754-63
Part of the 7 Years' War, Great Britain & France fought for control of the Ohio Valley & Canada. The colonies fought under British commanders and won; resulted in France being pushed out of N. America and massive British war debt
What was the impact of the 7 Years' War?
France removed from North America; Great Britain in massive debt, began to consolidate control over colonies - taxes; many colonists resisted that control
What was the work known as 'Common Sense'?
Pamphlet written by T-Paine, and Enlightenment thinker. Urged that it was "Common Sense" that colonies should break away from Great Britain
Reasons for Patriot Victory in Revolutionary War
Colonists' familiarity with the land; political and military leadership (Washington); ideological commitment (Natural Rights); Support from European Allies (France after Saratoga)
Define the Northwest Land Ordinance
Passed under Articles - banned slavery in NW territory (OH, MI, IN, etc.); created a process for admitting new states (60,000 inhabitants)
Define the Proclamation of 1763
Created to alleviate relations with natives after the French and Indian War and stated that Americans were not permitted to pass the Appalachian Mountains. Angered struggling colonists who had no other option but to find fortune and life on the frontier.
Explain the Stamp Act, 1765-66 and its impact
It imposed tax on newspapers, almanacs, pamphlets, deeds, wills, licenses;.many colonial groups formed such as Sons of Liberty and tarred or feathered tax collectors, organized non-important movements (boycotts)
What was the Boston Tea Party, 1773
American colonists calling themselves the Sons of Liberty, disguised as Mohawk Native Americans, boarded three British ships and dumped British tea into the Boston harbor.
Define the First Continental Congress, 1774
Convention of delegates from the colonies called in to discuss their response to the passage of the Intolerable Acts (
What happened at Lexington and Concord, 1775
First battle in the Revolutionary War, (AKA "shot heard round the world") fought in Massachusetts on April 19, 1775.
What was the meeting known as the Second Continental Congress, 1775
a convention of delegates from the 13 Colonies, managed the colonial war effort, sent The Olive Branch Petition,moved incrementally towards independence, adopted the Declaration of Independence, acted as the de facto national government.
Who was John Locke and what did he believe?
English Enlightenment philosopher and political thinker who believed in government based upon natural rights of the people (life, liberty, and property) the will of the governed.
Explain the Declaration of Independence, 1776
The fundamental document establishing the US as an independent nation, adopted on July 4, 1776. It declared the 13 colonies independent from Britain, offered reasons for the separation laid out the principles for which the Revolution was fought
Define the Treaty of Alliance, 1778 and who it was between
Alliance between France and the America in the American Revolution, formed after the Battle of Saratoga which showed France that the Americans had a chance to beat England.
What was the significance of the Battle of Yorktown, 1781?
last major battle of Revolution. French navy and ground troops were crucial to victory.
Explain the impact and significance of the Articles of Confederation when they went into effect in 1781
first constitution of the US. Put into effect during Revolutionary War. Based on equality of states, with each getting one vote. National government was very weak, with no power to tax. Laws required 9/13 vote to pass, changes to AOC required unanimous vote. 3 major accomplishments: winning Revolution, Land Ordinance of 1785 and Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
What was the Peace of Paris, 1783?
Treaty that ended American Revolution, granting US independence. Negotiated by John Adams, John Jay, Benjamin Franklin. Secured American fishing rights, territorial boundaries end American persecution of loyalists, and agreement to honor debts
Explain the impact of Shay's Rebellion, 1786
This MA conflict caused criticism of the Articles of Confederation; weak govt; increased calls for a Constitutional Convention to revise the Articles
Explain the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, 1787
1787 Philadelphia convention that produced the present Constitution of the United States, drafted largely by James Madison.
What were The Federalist Papers, published in 1787-8?
85 newspaper essays by Madison, Hamilton, and John Jay on the importance of having a new Constitution to replace the Articles of Confederation. This explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution. Considered the definitive statement on the political philosophy behind the American system of government.
Explain the US Constitution as a comparison to the Articles
Replaced the Articles - series of compromises (Great, 3/5, Slave Trade); provided limits on federal power (separation of powers); did not address problems of slavery
Who was Alexander Hamilton?
Washington's Treasury Secretary; helped put in place the basic economic foundations of the new government with the overriding goal of strengthening the national government's role. Key elements include: assumption of state debts (to centralize economic life and elite interests in national government and enhance its legitimacy for international trade), creation of the First Bank of the US (under a loose construction [interpretation] of the "elastic clause"), strong support for manufacturing (proposed protective tariffs)
Who was Samuel Slater?
"Father of the American Factory System" brought British textile technology to America with a few modifications fit for America.
What was the Bill of Rights, added in 1791?
The Bill of Rights is the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed to assuage the fears of Anti-Federalists
Explain the impact of the cotton gin, 1793?
a machine invented by Eli Whitney; revolutionized cotton production by greatly speeding up the process of removing seeds from cotton fiber.
Define Washington's Proclamation of Neutrality, 1793
Washington declares United States neutrality in the face of emerging European conflicts leading to a strong sense of isolationism kept the US from being drawn into constant European wars that might threaten the existence of the young fragile nation
Explain the Whiskey Rebellion, 1794
Small farmers of the back country distilled (and consumed) whiskey, which was easier to transport and sell than the grain that was its source.
Define Republican Motherhood
Expectation that women would instill Republican values in children and be active in families; helped increase education for women
Explain the impact of Washington's Farewell Address, 1796
Urged Americans to avoid excessive political party spirit and geographical distinctions. In foreign affairs, warned against long-term alliances with other nations -
What were the Alien & Sedition Acts, 1798
passed by Federalists, signed by President Adams;; increased waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years, empowered president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens, & made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials.
What were the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, 1798-99
Written by Jefferson and Madison, in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts; argued states had the power to declare federal acts unconstitutional.
Who were the Federalists (in Washington's presidency)?
Political Party led by Hamilton - pro-British; supported by the wealthy; pro-merchants and trade; Favored the National Bank (BUS); loose interpretation
Who were the Democratic-Republicans?
Political Party led by Jefferson - pro-French; supported by middle-class and farmers; pro-agriculture; against the BUS; strict interpretation
Explain the significance of the Election of 1800
Jefferson elected; defeats Adams, first peaceful, orderly transfer of power via competitive elections Called "Revolution of 1800"
Explain the situation surrounding the Midnight Judges of 1801
The Judiciary Act of 1801 created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. Federalists attempt to secure the Federalists a position of power in the new government after losing the congressional and presidential election of 1800
Explain Marbury v. Madison, 1803
SCOTUS decision; established the right of the courts to determine the constitutionality of the actions of the other two branches of government (Marshall Court)
Define the Louisiana Purchase (1803).
Jefferson sent Monroe to Paris to purchase New Orleans; Monroe ended up spending $15 million, because he was able to get all of Louisiana, Jefferson conflicted about the purchase, since he didn't feel he had the authority to do so under the Constitution, but the deal was too good to pass up and provided more than enough land to fulfill his dream of an America populated with small farmers.
Explain the Embargo Act of 1807.
Attempt by President Thomas Jefferson and the U.S. Congress to punish Britain and France for interfering with American trade while the two major European powers were at war
What were the causes of the War of 1812, 1812-1815, and who was it fought between?
US v Britain:fought over trade restrictions caused by British-French war; the impressment of American sailors, British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion,
What was the Hartford Convention of 1814?
A meeting of Federalist delegates from New England inspired by Federalist opposition to the War of 1812;contributed to the death of the Federalist Party during the "Era of Good Feelings"
What is the significance of the Battle of New Orleans, 1815?
Last major battle of the War of 1812; making Andrew Jackson a national hero and propelling him later to the presidency.
Explain the The American System, 1815
Policies devised by the Whig Party and leading politician Henry Clay: national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements
Explain the Era of Good Feelings, 1815-24
Period of strong nationalism, economic growth, territorial expansion under the presidency of James Monroe. Only one major political party at the time (Republican)
Define McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819
SCOTUS ruling based on Supremacy Clause; no state can tax institutions created by Congress - MD attempted to tax 2nd BUS
Define the Missouri compromise of 1820
Compromise - Maine enters as free state, Missouri as slave state, prohibited slavery in Louisiana Territory north of 36°30′ , preserved balance in US Senate - first LA Purchase territory to apply for statehood
Who were the Democrats of the mid-1820s-1840s?
Party led by Jackson - "Common Man"; pro states' rights; against the BUS
Who were the Whigs?
Political Party led by Henry Clay! Favored the BUS and the American System; strong legislative branch; against "King Andrew I"
Explain the Marshall Court
Asserted federal power over states (McCulloch v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden, Cohens v Virginia); judicial branch determined the meaning of Constitution (Marbury v. Madison)
What was the Second Great Awakening and what was its impact?
Inspired many to achieve perfection on earth; helped influence reform movements (abolitionism, women's rights, temperance, etc.)
Fear of foreigners - helped give rise to a nativist movement that was Anti-Catholic
Explain the Market Revolution
Drastic changes in transportation (canals, RRs), communication (telegraph), and the production of goods (more in factories as opposed to houses)
Define the Lowell factories
Utopian society for young women; hired girls from 15-25; expected to work 1-3 years, earned their own wages, encouraged by education. Criticisms included: long hrs , poor working conditions
Define the Monroe Doctrine, 1823
US foreign policy regarding Latin American countries stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention.
Explain the historical significance of the Election of 1824
John Quincy Adams elected President on February 9, 1825, after the election was decided by the House of Representatives in what was termed the Corrupt Bargain.
Explain the Indian Removal Act, 1830
Passed by Congress on May 28, 1830, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson. It authorized the president to negotiate with Indians tribes in the Southern U.S. for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their homelands. The act was strongly supported by non-native people of the South, who were eager to gain access to lands inhabited by the Five Civilized Tribes. The Removal Act paved the way for the reluctant migration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West, an event widely known as the "Trail of Tears".
What happened in Nat Turner's revolt, 1831
slave rebellion that took place in Virginia, led by Nat Turner. Rebel slaves killed anywhere from 55-65 people, the highest number by any slave uprising in the South.
Explain the Nullification Crisis, 1832-33
A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828 (AKA the "Tariff of Abominations"). Jackson got Congress to pass the Force Act, empowering him to use federal troops to collect tariffs and prepared to invade South Carolina. Henry Clay guided the Compromise Tariff of 1833 that reduced rates and ended the crisis.
What was the controversy surrounding the Second Bank of the United States, 1833-36
Bank whose renewal was vetoed by Andrew Jackson because he saw it as a tool of eastern financial elites against the interests of democracy and the common man, ultimately acting as a lead cause of the Panic of 1837.
What was the Panic of 1837? What caused it?
US financial crisis touching off a major recession thru the mid-1840s. caused by speculative lending practices in western states, a sharp decline in cotton prices, a collapsing land speculation bubble, international specie (gold) flows
Define the Trail of Tears, 1838
Andrew Jackson favored pushing all Amerindians west of the MS River. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 provided for federal enforcement of this policy, Jackson defied the Supreme Court in the case of Worcester v. Georgia in 1832, which would allow Indians to stay.
Nativist Movement of the early to mid-19th century
Discrimination against immigrants (notably Irish and Germans), heavily anti-Catholic, sought to limit power of immigrants (Know-Nothing Party)
Define the term "Manifest Destiny" first used in 1845
Coined by John L. O'Sullivan, this expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean and spread the American way of life, by force if necessary (conquering Indians and half of Mexico). This rationale drove the acquisition of territory. Example of "American Exceptionalism" - that God and US uniqueness justify actions
Explain the Annexation of Texas, 1845
Texas was annexed to the U.S, in 1845, it was this action that caused the Mexican War. It was the 28th state and came in as slave state.
Explain the causes and outcome of the Mexican-American War, 1846-48
A war fought between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848. The United States won the war, encouraged by the feelings of many Americans that the country was accomplishing its manifest destiny of expansion. US gained approximately half of Mexico's territory. This Mexican Cession would revive the controversy over the expansion of slavery and help lead to the Civil War
Define the Wilmot Proviso, 1846
The Wilmot Proviso was a rider to a bill proposed by Pennsylvania Congressman David Wilmot in 1846 that sought to ban slavery in any territories or new states acquired from Mexico. Essentially the argument was over whether there would be slavery in Texas, New Mexico, California, and other new western states. The debate is considered a crucial part of the lead-up to the Civil War.
Why did Mormons migrate to Utah, 1847-48
The Mormons (founded by their profit Joseph Smith) were persecuted so they migrated west along the Oregon Trail. Led by Brigham Young after Smith's death, the Mormons created a large settlement near the Great Salt Lake, which is now Utah. Utah has a large Mormon population today, and Mormonism is one of the world's fastest growing religions.
Explain the Seneca Falls convention, 1848
Site of the first modern women's rights convention, and the start of the organized fight for women's rights in US history. At the gathering, Elizabeth Cady Stanton read a Declaration of Sentiments modeled on the Declaration of Independence listing the many injustices against women, and adopted eleven resolutions, one of which called for women's suffrage.
Define the Mexican Cession, 1848
Land that Mexico ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. This territory included CA, NM, NV, AZ, UT, TX, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. The addition of so much land to the United States exacerbated conflict over the expansion of slavery because some Northerners feared that the extension of slavery into California and New Mexico would deter free laborers from settling there.
What was the impact of the California gold rush, 1849
Hundreds of thousands of people from around the world, mostly young men, came to California in 1849 after gold was discovered in search of instant riches. Led to quick population of California, and new conflicts over slavery as California petitioned for admission as a free state. Led to Compromise of 1850
Explain the Compromise of 1850
"North: California admitted as free state, Texas gave up claims to disputed lands in New Mexico, Slave trade in DC was banned, but slavery was legal. South: Popular sovereignty in Mexican Cession lands, Texas was paid $10 million for land lost, stricter fugitive slave law."
Who were the abolitionists? What did they do?
Minority in the north; used fierce arguments (Garrison's Liberator), helping slaves escape (Underground RR), and violence (Nat Turner, John Brown at Harpers Ferry)
Explain the significance of the idea of "Slavery as a Positive Good"
Argument used by John C. Calhoun and many in the South to justify slavery
Explain the creation of the Republican Party in the mid-19th century
Emerged as a sectional party in the North and Midwest; sought to keep slavery from expanding (free-soil) - as seen in Lincoln's election in 1860
Define the Emancipation Proclamation
Changed the purpose of the Civil War; allowed African Americans to fight in the Union Army; Kept Europe from aiding the South
What was the impact of Harriet Beecher Stowe publishing Uncle Tom's Cabin, 1852?
Most important book in US history. Portrayed horrors of American slavery, especially slave auctions. Helped intensify Northern abolitionism and contempt for the South, thus contributing to likelihood of war. International bestseller that helped move public opinion in Europe against the South, thus assuring the failure of King Cotton diplomacy (hope that England would intervene for Confederacy to maintain the supply of cotton for its textile mills) as Europeans didn't want to die to save southern slavery.
What did the Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 do?
Proposed by Senator Douglas (Illinois) and advocated popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska territories (vote by people of territory whether they would be slave or free state). Douglas wanted it to facilitate the building of the transcontinental railroad on a central route through Illinois, thus benefitting his state economically. K/A Act passed but backfired terribly as extremes of both sides of slavery debate flooded into Kansas. Votes on constitutions were plagued with fraud and "Bleeding Kansas" begins as violence erupts between pro/anti-slavery groups.
What led to the creation of the Republican Party, 1854?
In the wake of the demise of the Whigs in the early 1850s over the slavery issue, the Republican Party organized in 1854 by antislavery Whigs, Democrats, Free Soilers and abolitionists in response to the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act; nominated John C. Frémont for president in 1856, Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Dominated by anti-slavery members until early 1870s, then became party of big business/laissez faire capitalism. Dominated national politics until FDR's election in 1932
Explain the Dred Scot v. Sandford, 1857 case and its ruling.
Chief Justice Taney ruled that Dred Scott was not a citizen and had no standing in court; Scott's residence in a free state had not made him free, that blacks have "no rights a white man is bound to respect," & Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in a territory (based on the 5th Amendment right of a person to be secure from seizure of property), voiding the Missouri Compromise and seemed to imply that no state could ban slavery at all. Outraged the North and helped make Civil War inevitable. Considered worst decision in Supreme Court history
Explain the Lincoln-Douglas debates, 1858
A series of seven debates for US Senate in Illinois between Lincoln (R) and Senator Douglas (D). The debates previewed the issues that Lincoln would face in the aftermath of his victory in the 1860 presidential election. The main issue discussed in all seven debates was slavery as it related to popular sovereignty in the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the Lecompton Constitution and the Dred Scott decision. Douglas won election, but Lincoln's fine showing made him a national figure and helped him win Republican nomination in 1860
What was the impact of John Brown's raid, 1859?
John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry was an attempt by the white abolitionist John Brown to start an armed slave revolt in 1859 by seizing a United States arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Brown's raid, accompanied by 20 men in his party, was defeated by a detachment of U.S. Marines led by Col. Robert E. Lee and he was executed for treason. Many in the North hailed him as a martyr, while the south saw him as a terrorist. Help make Civil War inevitable.
What happened in and as a result of the Election of 1860?
Abraham Lincoln became president! Major "realignment" of parties as new Republican Party (formed from ashes of "Free Soil Party") adopted an anti-slavery platform that attracted former Whigs and anti-slavery Democrats. The election led to the secession, civil war, the end of slavery, and Reconstruction. Also meant the triumph of capitalism over southern semi-feudalism and lead to rapid industrialization after the Civil War.
Explain the course of Southern secession, 1860-61
Immediately following Lincoln's victory in November 1860 election, 11 southern states seceded from the US, led by South Carolina, to form the Confederate States of America (CSA) because they feared the Republican Party under Lincoln would try to abolish slavery. Lincoln's refusal to allow the Union to dissolve and the Confederate attack on Ft. Sumter began Civil War.
What happened at Fort Sumter, 1861?
Located in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. One of only two federal forts that had not fallen to Confederacy. The troops needed provisions, or would have to surrender to seige. Lincoln informed the South Carolinians that he would send provisions but no reinforcements. When the Union sent a naval force, the South opened fire on the Fort, marking the official beginning of the Civil War. There were no casualties (except for a horse) and the fort surrendered.
Define: Homestead Act of 1862
Act that allowed a settler to acquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years, improving it, and paying a nominal fee of about $30. Land was given away to encourage a rapid filling of empty spaces and to provide a stimulus to the family farm. However, because the land usually had terrible soil and the weather included no precipitation, many farms were repo'd or failed until "dry farming" and irrigation projects took root on the plains
Define: Morrill Land-Grant Act, 1862
Transferred public acreage to the state governments which could sell land and use proceeds for the establishment of agricultural colleges (for example, Texas A&M). Called "Land-Grant" colleges, it help spread public education in America.
Explain the significance of the Battles of Vicksburg and Gettysburg, 1863
The two victories at Gettysburg, PA and Vicksburg, MS, turned the Civil War in the Union's favor. Culminating within a day of each other, Gettysburg and Vicksburg respectively put Lee on the defensive in the East and opened the Mississippi in the West, paving the way for the South's ultimate defeat.
What happened at Appomattox Court House, 1865
A village in Virginia where General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant in April 1865, effectively ending the American Civil War. The Confederates were treated with respect after their surrender
Explain the purpose and impact of the Freedman's Bureau, 1865
Set up to help freedmen and white refugees after Civil War. Provided food, clothing, medical care, and education. First to establish schools for blacks to learn to read as thousands of teachers from the north came south to help. Lasted from 1865-72. Attacked by KKK and other southerners as "carpetbaggers" Encouraged former plantation owners to rebuild their plantations, urged freed Blacks to gain employment, kept an eye on contracts between labor and management, etc
Define the 13th Amendment
Abolished slavery; led to the rise of sharecropping in the south
Who were the Radical Republicans and how did their platform differ from President Johnson's?
Most fervent abolitionists; Sought to change racial and cultural attitudes of the South; strongest advocates of African American rights in Congress
Explain the Purchase of Alaska, 1867 and issues surrounding its annexation
Russia wanted to sell its Alaskan territory, fearing that it might be seized if war broke out with Britain. Reactions to the purchase in the United States were mixed, with opponents calling it "Seward's Folly", feeling that U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward, the primary American negotiator, got the worst of the bargain. After rich oil and mineral reserves were found it is now seen as a great bargain. Alaska was admitted as a state in 1959.
Define Radical Reconstruction, which began in 1867
Radical Republicans won a victory in the 1866 congressional midterm elections giving them a huge veto-proof (over 2/3rds). Congress decided that they, not President Johnson (who was a pro-Southern racist that opposed helping freedmen), would handle reconstruction and refused to admit states under Johnson's plan. In March 1867 Congress passed, over President Johnson's veto, several Reconstruction acts. Placed the South under martial law (military rule) and soon passed the 14th (citizenship for freedmen) and 15th amendments (suffrage for freedmen)
Explain the Andrew Johnson impeachment trial, 1868
Johnson was impeached by the U.S. House of Representatives on the primary charge of Johnson's violation of the Tenure of Office Act. Specifically, he had removed Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton (whom the Tenure of Office Act was largely designed to protect) from office as a way of trying to block Congressional Reconstruction. The Senate trial concluded on May 16 with Johnson's acquittal, with the votes for conviction being one less than the required 2/3rds tally. Johnson backed off afterwards to his opposition to Congressional Reconstruction
Define: 14th Amendment, 1868
Grants citizenship to "all persons born or naturalized in the US"; it forbids any state to deny any person "life, liberty or property, without due process of law" or to "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of its laws." Most important law ever passed besides original Constitution and Bill of Rights. It has been the vehicle for the expansion of civil rights, women's rights, gay rights among other movements. It also allowed for the "incorporation doctrine" which means the application of the national Bill of Rights to the states.
Define: 15th Amendment
Provided suffrage for all adult MALES; divided the Women's Rights Movement
What is the significance of the Transcontinental railroad completed, 1869
A railroad that crossed North America by linking the Pacific and Atlantic coasts. It was built by two companies. Central Pacific heading east from west coast and was built primarily by Chinese workers. Union Pacific headed from east to west, built largely by Irish immigrants. The two routes connected in Utah. It improved travel, eased the movement of raw materials to factories, faster and better transportation, and moving finished products to market. The government aided in this construction by lending money and gave free land to railroads
Why were the Knights of Labor, created in 1869, a significant aspect of the Gilded Age?
the largest and most important American labor organizations of the late 1870s & 1880s. The Knights promoted the social and cultural uplift of the workingman, rejected Socialism and radicalism, demanded the 8-hour day, and promoted the producers ethic of workplace democracy and cooperation. Unfairly associated with anarchist radicalism and after Haymarket Square Riot (1886) the union rapidly declined.
What is the significance of the Battle of Little Big Horn, 1876
The Battle of the Little Bighorn, also called Custer's Last Stand, was an engagement between the combined forces of the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne tribes against the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army. The most famous of all of the Indian Wars, the remarkable victory for the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne occurred over two days on June 25-26, 1876 near the Little Bighorn River in eastern Montana Territory. The U.S. cavalry detachment, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer, lost every soldier in his unit.
What happened in the Election of 1876 that makes it historically significant?
one of the most disputed presidential elections in US history. Tilden (D) outpolled Ohio's Rutherford B. Hayes (R) in the popular vote, and had 184 electoral votes to Hayes' 165, with 20 votes uncounted due to problems in three states (Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina). The 20 disputed electoral votes were ultimately awarded to Hayes after a bitter legal and political battle, giving him the victory on the condition that Hayes would remove remaining federal troops from the South, marking the end of Reconstruction and the beginning of Jim Crow segregation.
Define the Gilded Age
Coin termed by Mark Twain; period from 1870s - 1890s, businesses grew at a rapid rate and many problems lied below perceived prosperity
What is Social Darwinism?
Charles Darwin's ideas applied to humans, "survival of the fittest." Used by wealthy to justify their position in life
What were the two main labor unions of the Gilded Age and how did they differ?
Knights of Labor - skilled and unskilled; AFL - skilled labor only; sought to improve working conditions and increase pay
What was the Great Railroad Strike, 1877
A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the strike (example of how government always sided with employers over workers in the Gilded Age). The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men
Impact of the James Garfield assassination, 1881?
On July 2, 1881, President Garfield was assassinated by Charles J. Guiteau who was disgruntled because of his unsuccessful attempts at securing a federal post. His death gave momentum to civil service reform, which would pass with the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883 which gradually changed government jobs from the spoils system (patronage) to the merit system, or from "who you know" to "what you know"
Who was Booker T. Washington and why did he found Tuskegee Institute, 1881?
A normal and industrial school led by Booker T. Washington in Tuskegee, Alabama. It focused on training young black students in agriculture and the trades to help them achieve economic independence. Washington justified segregated, vocational training as a necessary first step on the road to racial equality, although critics accused him of being too "accommodationist".
What did the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 do?
law that suspended Chinese immigration into America. The ban was supposed to last 10 years, but it was expanded several times and was essentially in effect until WWII. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was the first significant law that restricted immigration into the United States of an ethnic working group. Extreme example of nativism of period
What did the Pendleton Civil Service Act, 1883 do?
is a federal law established in 1883 (signed by President Arthur in the wake of Garfield's assassination by a deranged patronage-seeker) that stipulated that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit. The act provided selection of government employees competitive exams, rather than ties to politicians or political affiliation. It also made it illegal to fire or demote government employees for political reasons. To enforce the merit system, the law also created the US Civil Service Commission.
Explain the Haymarket Square Riot, 1886
bomb is thrown at a squad of policemen attempting to break up a labor rally. The police responded with gunfire, killing several people in the crowd and injuring dozens more. It set off a national wave of hysteria, as hundreds of foreign-born radicals and labor leaders were rounded up in Chicago and elsewhere. A grand jury indicted 31 suspected labor radicals in connection with the bombing, and eight men were convicted. The Knights of Labor were also blamed for the riot which decrease their popularity.
Explain the American Federation of Labor, created in 1886
founded by Samuel Gompers. The AFL was considered more conservative than the Knights of Labor or the IWW, and campaigning for basic "bread and butter" issues for workers such as 8-hour days, higher wages, and better working conditions. For decades, the AFL only allowed white male skilled workers to join. The AFL tried to "work within the system" and get more benefits for skilled workers instead of the more radical goals of the KoL and the IWW who wanted to overthrow capitalism and establish economic democracy.
Define: Dawes Severalty Act, 1887
adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians. Those who accepted allotments and lived separately from the tribe would be granted US citizenship. The act was an attempt to destroy Indian culture and the unity of the tribe and make each Native American head of household more like the White citizen/farmers.
Why did Jane Addams found Hull House, 1887?
Settlement home in Chicago, IL designed as a private welfare agency for needy families, particularly recent immigrants. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty. Not the first, but the most famous of settlement house movement, in part because of popularity of Jane Addams' writing
Define the "New South"
Idea that the south should industrialize after the Civil War. Despite calls for industrialization, sharecropping and tenant farming persisted in the South
What was the sharecropping system?
Persisted in the South (especially for African Americans.) They had to give a share of their crops to plantation owners. Way for southerners to get around the 13th amendment.
Explain the impact of Mechanized Agriculture in the late 19th century
Using machines in farming to increase farm production; displaced many farmers; farmers created organizations to resist corporate power (Grange)
Define: People's (Populist) Party
Created in response to the growth of corporate power; called for political reform (election of senators, secret ballot) and increased government involvement in economy
Explain the concept of Political Machines
Appealed to immigrants and urban poor; provided services in exchange for support. Think Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall
What did Settlement Houses (Notably Jane Addams' Hull House) do?
Helped immigrants adjust to American life. Focused on providing education and other skills for women, immigrants, and children
Explain the impact of the decimation of the buffalo
Buffalo almost became extinct due to westward expansion and over hunting of buffalo (buffalo hide); impacted Native Americans
Define: Social Gospel
Protestant Church Movement that sought to improve the conditions of cities
Explain the movement to assimilate Native Americans to white culture in the late 19th century
Process of making Natives "America"; Dawes Act - assimilated through cutting hair, changing tribal identities, providing individual land plots
Define the "Gospel of Wealth" 1889
book written by Andrew Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy, meaning to use their wealth for the benefit of society by sponsoring the arts, science, libraries, etc. Nicer alternative to harsh philosophy of Social Darwinism, but it was still very elitist and gave power over society to rich.
Who was Jacob Riis and why did he publish How the Other Half Lives, 1890?
book by muckraker photojournalist John Riis that showed the public the squalid conditions tenements in NYC (slums that housed many recent immigrants in highly unsanitary conditions). Was very graphic and caused people to re-evaluate tenement houses and helped spur reforms as part of the Progressive Era.
Define: Sherman Anti-Trust Act, 1890
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by President Benjamin Harrison and was later extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was first misused AGAINST labor unions
What happened at Wounded Knee in 1890? Explain its impact.
US army killed 200 in order to suppress the Ghost Dance movement, a religious movement that was the last effort of Indians to resist US invasion. Ended Native American resistance in the Great Plains
Explain the significance of Ellis Island, opened in 1892
An immigration center in New York in the shadow of the Statue of Liberty for all incoming immigrants from the Atlantic. Opened to conduct more rigorous tests on incoming immigrants in order to restrict immigration.
Explain what happened at the Homestead Strike in 1892 and as a result of the strike.
On June 29, 1892, workers belonging to the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers struck the Carnegie Steel Company at Homestead, Pa. to protest a proposed wage cut. Henry C. Frick, the company's general manager, determined to break the union. He hired 300 Pinkerton detectives to protect the plant and strikebreakers. After an armed battle between the workers and the detectives, several men were killed or wounded, the governor called out the state militia. The Homestead strike led to a serious weakening of unionism in the steel industry until the 1930s.
Define: Panic of 1893
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to railroad companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, some say as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
What happened at the Pullman Strike, 1894?
A staged walkout strike by railroad workers upset by drastic wage cuts. The strike was led by socialist Eugene Debs but not supported by the American Federation of Labor. Eventually President Grover Cleveland intervened because it was interfering with mail delivery and federal troops forced an end to the strike. The strike highlighted both divisions within labor and the government's continuing willingness to use armed force to combat work stoppages.
Explain the ruling and impact of Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
The court case in which the Supreme Court validated the South's segregationist social order; ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional under the "equal protection" clause in the Fourteenth Amendment; in reality the quality of African American life was grotesquely unequal to that of whites. Later overturned by Brown v. Board in 1954
Explain the significance of the Election of 1896
William McKinley wins! The presidential election of 1896 demonstrated a sharp division in society between urban and rural interests. William Jennings Bryan (Democrat & Populist) was able to form a coalition that answered the call of populist groups and rural interests including the indebted farmers and those arguing against the gold standard (remember "Cross of Gold" speech). McKinley's victory highlights the shift from America as an agrarian nature to one of urban interests. Populism defeated, but many of its goals would be achieved later in the Progressive Era.
Explain the concept of the "Closing of the Frontier"
Frederick Jackson Turner's Frontier Thesis argued the frontier was "closed." Led many Americans to call for overseas expansion
Explain the Spanish-American War, 1898, including its causes, course, and consequences for the United States.
The Maine mysteriously blew up in the Havana harbor from internal explosion. Yellow journalists like Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst sensationalistically influence public opinion in newspapers ("Remember the Maine, to Hell with Spain"). Americans declare war on Spain. The War was also caused by Americans' desire to expand as well as the harsh treatment that the Spanish had over the Cubans; the U.S. also wanted to help Cubans gain independence from Spain. The war resulted in the U.S. gaining Guam and Puerto Rico as well as control over the Philippines.
Define: Open Door policy, 1899
Statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China issued by U.S. Secretary of State John Hay. The policy proposed to keep China open to trade with all countries on an equal basis; thus, no international power would have total control of the country. The Open Door policy was rooted in desire of American businesses to exploit Chinese markets it could not reach because of European spheres of influence. It was mainly used to mediate competing interests of the colonial powers without much meaningful input from the Chinese
Explain the cause and effect of the Filipino rebellion, 1899-1901
After its defeat in the Spanish-American War of 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines to the US. Filipinos led by Emilio Aguinaldo sought independence rather than a change in colonial rulers. The ensuing Philippine-American War lasted three years and resulted in the death of over 4,200 American and over 20,000 Filipino combatants. As many as 200,000 Filipino civilians died from violence, famine, and disease. Resistance ended with Aguinaldo's capture and the Phillippines would remain under US control until 1946
Explain the significance of the William McKinley assassination of 1901
The 25th President of the United States, William McKinley, was shot and fatally wounded on September 6, 1901, inside the Temple of Music on the grounds of the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. McKinley was shaking hands with the public when he was shot by Leon Czolgosz, an anarchist. The President died on September 14 from gangrene caused by the bullet wounds. His Vice President, Teddy Roosevelt, a progressive Republican, became president.
What was the impact of the Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902?
The coal strike threatened a national energy shortage. After TR threatened to run the mines with US troops the mine operators agreed to negotiate with the workers. The agreement resulted in the workers getting more pay for fewer hours, but with no union recognition. This is the first time in US history that the national government intervened to help striking workers. Previously, the government had always sided with the owners, (President Hayes using troops against railroad workers in 1877, Cleveland using troops against Pullman workers, etc.)
Explain the significance of the Northern Securities Company broken up, 1904
Supreme Court refused railway promoters' appeal and ordered the Northern Securities Company to be dissolved, angered big businesses, enhanced TR's reputation as a trustbuster
Explain the Roosevelt Corollary, 1904
Roosevelt's extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force. we were the "police of the western hemisphere" Example of US imperialism in Latin America. Used to justify hundreds of interventions, mostly to protect US business interests, sometimes to the detriment of democratic movements in Latin America
Define the Progressive Era
1890 - 1920, Progressives tended to be women, middle class, and live in urban areas. Progressives sought to use government influence to solve societal problems.
Explain the Transition from Rural to Urban Society and when in history it was most obvious
US society adjusted as more people moved to cities - 1920 census - more people live in cities than rural areas
Why did Upton Sinclair publish The Jungle, 1906?
Sinclair wrote the novel to portray the lives of immigrants in the United States in Chicago and similar industrialized cities. He exposed the health violations and unsanitary practice of the American meatpacking industry. In response to his novel, it helped to pass the Meat Inspection Act as well as the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.
Explain the impact of the Ford Model-T, introduced in 1908
The Model T was created by Henry Ford. It was the first car that was made affordable for a majority of Americans. With the help of the Model T, Ford was able to optimize the use of an assembly line for mass production. The Model T allowed Americans to be able to get to places faster and gave women a new sense of freedom with this innovated type of transportation.
Explain the significance of the NAACP, organized in 1909
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Organized by the Niagara Movement leaders in 1909, including W.E.B. DuBois. The largest and most successful civil rights organization in US history. They used the law and law courts to campaign against racial injustices, political and civil equality, winning their greatest victory with Brown v. Board in 1954 that desegregated schools.
What was the significance of the Election of 1912
Woodrow Wilson wins! When Theodore Roosevelt broke from the Republicans to form the Bull Moose (AKA "Progressive") Party, he hoped to win back the presidency. His presence split the Republican vote resulting in a win for the Democrat, Wilson. Wilson led an era of Progressive Reform (creating the Federal Reserve for instance), took the nation into World War I and staunchly fought for the 'League of Nations' - which the US wouldn't join because of Wilson's unwillingness to compromise with the Republicans in the Senate.
Define: 16th Amendment, 1913
Authorized the collection of a progressive income tax. "Progressive" means as you make a higher income, you pay a higher percentage. This tax does not apply to money made on investments or in the stock market. Today, this is the primary source of revenue for the federal government. Helped replace revenue lost after the Underwood-Simmons Tariff of 1913 (passed under Wilson) significantly lowered tariffs.
Define: 17th Amendment, 1913
Established that senators were to be elected directly by voters (instead of by state legislatures as under the Constitution originally). This law was part of the Progressive Era effort to curb the power of political parties and open up the government with more democracy to the people.
What was the significance of the Federal Reserve System created, 1913?
After the Panic of 1907, this law reformed the banking system and created the Federal Reserve (the central bank of the US) and the Federal Reserve Board which oversaw a nationwide system of 12 regional district banks. The "Fed" has the power to issue paper money. The Fed conducts "monetary policy" in the US - meaning it controls the money supply. It does so in part by setting interest rates - the "price" of money (i.e. how much a company or individual must pay in interest to get access to loans) which has an enormous impact on the world economy.
Define: Clayton Anti-Trust Act, 1914
It added to the Sherman Anti-Trust Act's list of objectionable trust practices by forbidding price discrimination (i.e. setting different prices for different people), and interlocking directorates, meaning the same people serving on "competitors" boards of trustees. It also exempted labor unions from being considered trusts and legalized strikes as a form of peaceful assembly. Ultimately helped cut down on monopolies.
What was the significance of the Birth of a Nation, 1915?
An American silent film directed by D. W. Griffith. The film was a commercial success, but was highly controversial owing to its portrayal of African-American men as unintelligent and sexually aggressive towards white women, and the portrayal of the Ku Klux Klan as a heroic force. It is is also credited as one of the events that inspired the formation of the "second era" Ku Klux Klan. Despite the film's controversial content, Griffith's innovative film techniques make it one of the most important and influential films in the commercial film industry.
Explain the cause of United States entry into WWI, 1917
British-owned ocean liner Lusitania was torpedoed by German U-boats, killing 1,201 passengers, including 128 Americans. Foreign Minister Alfred Zimmerman sent a message to Mexico and Japan to provoke them into attacking the U.S., but it was decoded by the British. Germany resumes UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE to sink US ships bringing supplies to British/French, hoping to take out Britain/France before the US can enter war. This gamble failed as US entry into the war in 1917 helped secure victory.
What was the significance of The Fourteen Points, 1918
A statement given on January 8, 1918 by Wilson declaring that WW I was being fought for a moral cause and calling for postwar peace in Europe. The speech laid out a policy of free trade, open agreements, democracy and self-determination. Point 14 advocated for the League of Nations to be established that would keep world peace. Most of these points would not be realized, and the US would fail to join the League of Nations. However, it served as a model for the more successful Atlantic Charter after WWII
Define: 18th Amendment, 1919
The 18th Amendment (proposed by Congress on December 19, 1917) banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages in the United States and its possessions. Contrary to common belief, it did not prohibit the purchase or consumption of alcohol. The Amendment was ratified on January 18, 1919, went into effect one year later, and was repealed by the 21st Amendment on December 5, 1933. Small-time operators were faced with competition from the organized crime and criminal gangs that fought each other for market control.
What was the significance of the Versailles Treaty's defeat, 1919 in the US Senate?
The Treaty of Versailles (signed on June 28, 1919) ended WWI. However, it was not ratified by the US Senate due to Wilson's lack of cooperation/compromise with Senate Republicans. Thus, the US did not join the League of Nations and the postwar arrangements in the treaty were undermined, helping set the stage for WWII.
What was the significance of the Palmer Raids, 1920
Attorney General Palmer's campaign to arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists, from the US. Occurred in November 1919 and January 1920 as more than 500 foreign citizens were deported, including a number of leftist leaders. U.S. Department of Labor objected the Palmer's methods. The Palmer Raids occurred in the larger context of the First Red Scare that had begun in response to the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and was used by US businesses and conservatives as a weapon to attack unions and the left.
Define the 19th Amendment, 1920
Ratified on August 18, 1920 (drafted by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton), prohibits any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex. The Constitution allows the states to determine the qualifications for voting, and until the 1910's most states disenfranchised women. The amendment was the culmination of the women's suffrage movement in the U.S.
What was the significance of the Harlem Renaissance
Celebration of African American culture through music, poetry, and writing. Key people - Langston Hughes, Claude Monet, Zora Neale Hurston
Define the Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations
Treaty that ended WWI; League led to debates over the role of the US in the world; ultimately, the US did NOT join the League
What was the significance of the Great Migration
Mass movement of African Americans from the South to the North during WWI for economic opportunities
Define: the Red Scare
Fear of Communism after WWI, caused by: Russian Revolution, labor strikes post WWI, nativism; led to a crackdown on immigrants and radicals (suppression of rights)
Explain the 1920s Restrictive Immigration Quotas
1921 and 1924 acts that severely limited immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe ("New immigrants")
What was the significance of the Teapot Dome Scandal, 1923-24
Scandal surrounding the illegal leasing of federal oil reserves by the secretary of the interior, Albert Fall to private businesses in return cash and no interest loans. Harding died before the full extent of the crimes had been determined. Scandal revealed the corruption of his cabinet, which was involved in other crimes as well.
What was the significance of the Scopes Trial, 1925
Tennessee legal case involving the teaching of evolution in public schools. Scopes, a biology teacher, was tried for teaching Darwinism in public school. Clarence Darrow was one of Scopes' attorneys, while William Jennings Bryan, a leading Christian fundamentalist, aided the state prosecutor. Darrow put Bryan on the stand and sharply questioned Bryan on the latter's literal interpretation as appropriate for science class. Bryan was humiliated and died a few days after the trial. Scopes was convicted.
What was the significance of the KKK march on Washington, 1925
The second KKK reached its peak in 1925 with over 4 million members, and demonstrated its power with a massive march on washington. It was later hurt by a series of financial and sex scandals. New KKK was not only anti-black, but also anti-immigrant, anti-pacifist, anti-Catholic, anti-socialist, basically anti-anything that wasn't WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant)
What was the significance of Charles Lindbergh's flight, 1927
US aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean. His plane was the "Spirit of St Louis" flew from Long Island, New York to Paris, France. Total flight time: 33 hours, 30 minutes, 29.8 seconds. He gained great publicity for this effort and was widly praised by all Amerians.He was a huge figure in the eyes of common people and created a new sense of pride within the US.Lindbergh would then go on to advocate isolationism during the years before WWII. As an orator he spoke for the America First Committee to try and steer away from war.
What was the significance of the Sacco and Vanzetti trial and subsequent execution in 1927
Italian immigrants who in 1921 had been convicted in a Massachusetts court of committing robbery and murder. Liberals protested that the two men were innocent, and that they had been accused, convicted, and sentenced to die simply because they were poor Italians and anarchists. After six years of appeals and national and international debates over the fairness of their trial, Sacco and Vanzetti were executed in 1927. This proved to be a major dilemma in the course of the 1st red scare against foreigners and suspected communists within the US.
What was the significance of the The Jazz Singer, 1927
The first movie with sound, this "talkie" was about the life of a fictional jazz singer, portrayed by actor Al Jolson. It was the first movie that included dialogue and music on the filmstrip itself. Before The Jazz Singer, there were silent films that were often accompanied by music (usually a piano player or an orchestra).
What was the significance of the Stock Market crash, 1929
A severe downturn in stock prices that occurred in October of 1929 in the United States, and which marked the end of the "Roaring Twenties." Despite a few attempts at recovery, the stock market continued to languish, eventually falling almost 90% from its peak in 1929. It took over 25 years for the stock market to get back to the highs of the 1929 market, as the U.S. economy suffered through the Great Depression. Major new legislative and regulatory changes (New Deal) were enacted in an effort to prevent the same situation from happening again.
What was the significance of the Hawley-Smoot Tariff, 1930
Passed under President Hoover, it raised tariffs up to sixty percent which became the nation's highest protective tariff during peacetime. Hoover & Republicans hoped it would help US economy, but instead it resulted in retaliatory tariff increases against the US by other countries. It deepened depression and increased international financial chaos.
Define: the Great Depression
Worst financial crisis in US history, led to calls for the creation of a stronger financial regulatory system
Bonus march, 1932
WWI vets were promised a bonus in 1945. Since many were suffering in the Depression, there was a bill proposed in the Senate to pay the bonus immediately. Thousands of vets and their families gathered in a huge Hooverville (shanty town) in DC to support bill. The bill fails, vets decided to maintain their protest. Hoover sends Douglas MacArthur to clear them out with army. MacArthur overreacts, burns down the Hooverville destroying all the vets possessions, kills two people & kills Hoover's chances in 1932 election
Stimson Doctrine, 1932
Issued by Secretary of State, Henry L. Stimson, it was in response to Japan's violation of the Open Door policy when it attacked Manchuria in 1931. It stated that United States would not recognize any territorial acquisitions achieved by force. It was ignored by the Japanese and they moved towards to Shanghai in 1932.
First New Deal, 1933
FDR's policies to help ease the Great Depression during the 1st two years of his presidency. Much of it passed in the 1st 100 Days, in an unprecedented flurry of laws. It aimed for the three R's: relief, recovery, reform. Included Bank Holiday, Glass-Steagal (SEC), CCC, AAA, TVA, NIRA, FDIC, FERA
Drew on ideas from the Progressive Era, sought to address causes of the Depression; faced opposition by the left and right; left a legacy of reforms that are still around today
Good Neighbor Policy, 1933
Since the days of Teddy Roosevelt's Roosevelt Corrolary, the US had intervened many times in Latin America militarily and economically to benefit US businesses, enraging many Latin Americans. FDR's "Good Neighbor" policy promised to end these interventions and treat Latin America with respect. The main motivation was to prevent Latin America from joining rising tide of fascism across the world in the 1930s. FDR was very popular in Latin America due to this policy
Schecter v. the United States, 1935
a decision by the Supreme Court of the US that declared regulations of the poultry industry that were part of the New Deal unconstitutional. This was a unanimous decision that rendered the National Industrial Recovery Act, a main component of President Roosevelt's New Deal, unconstitutional. FDR would soon respond with "court packing plan" that would lead to constitutional crisis. Court eventually backed down and New Deal got through, but it hurt FDR
Dust Bowl, 1935
a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the US prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion caused the phenomenon.
Second New Deal, 1935
Began in 1935 after the midterm congressional elections in 1934 which further expanded Democratic majorities in Congress thus giving FDR a mandate to go further with the New Deal. Created Works Progress Administration which put over 3 million people to work paid by the government among many other programs. Most important legacies: Social Security & Wagner Act
Wagner Act, 1935
officially "National Labor Relations Act"; established National Labor Relations Board to administer labor laws and union elections; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands. Highest legislative achievement for unions in US history.
Social Security Act, 1935
Provided old-age pension (retirement), and a program of unemployment insurance (temporary aid to help people who lose jobs to find a new job), and federal welfare program (aid for very poor). Most famous and important legacy of New Deal. Has resulted (along with Medicare) with drastic reduction in poverty among elderly in the US
Huey Long assassinated, 1935
The Share the Wealth society was founded in 1934 by Senator Huey Long of Louisiana, generally considered a left-wing demagogue. He called for the confiscation of all fortunes over $5 million and a 100% tax on annual incomes over $1 million. He was assassinated in 1935, but the popularity of his ideas helped to push FDR to the left in the Second New Deal
Congress of Industrial Organization created, 1935
Formed to encourage the AFL to organize workers in mass production industries along industrial union lines (skilled and unskilled workers as opposed to trade union lines - meaning only skilled workers) by eight international unions of the AFL. Union organization of unskilled workers; later broke away from the AFL in 1935 due to ideological differences and rejoined it in 1955 under pressure of 2nd Red Scare
FDR's court-packing plan, 1937
Upset the Supreme Court had ruled New Deal unconstitutional, FDR's plan would allow the president to appoint a new Supreme Court justice whenever an incumbent judge reached 70 and didn't retire. Constitutional crisis began as many saw FDR's proposal as a violation of the separation of powers and a power grab that seemed dictatorial. Eventually one justice retired, allowing FDR to appoint a New Deal friendly justice so the court stopped blocking New Deal. However, the crisis blunted momentum for additional reforms
Roosevelt recession, 1937-38
in an effort to reduce deficits, in 1937 FDR and Democrats cut back on New Deal spending, triggering a new recession as government spending stimulus was removed. Revealed that Great Depression wasn't over. Massive government spending for WWII would provide enormous stimulus that would finally get US out of Depression & provide strong support for Keynesian economic theory (government spending to get economy out of recession)
Lend-Lease Act, 1940
US supplied Great Britain, the USSR, Free France, the Republic of China, and other Allied nations with weapons and other necessary materials to fight Axis powers between 1941 and August 1945. US became the "arsenal of democracy"
Atlantic Charter, 1941
Pledge signed by US president FDR and British PM Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war. Also to set up new international organization to mediate disputes between nations that would come in the form of the United Nations. Similar to Wilson's 14 Points after WWI, but this time it was much more successful.
Pearl Harbor, 1941
The Japanese wanted to continue their expansion within Asia in the late 1930s and early 40s but the US had placed an extremely restrictive embargo on Japan in the hopes of curbing Japan's aggression. The Japanese decided to launch a surprise attack against the United States at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on Dec. 7, 1941 (a "day that will live in infamy" according to the famous words of FDR). The United States abandoned its policy of isolationism and entered WWII by declaring war on Japan the following day.
World War II
US remained neutral until Pearl Harbor; US and Allies won due to: political and military cooperation, industrial production, and scientific advancements; US emerged as a world power
Japanese-American internment, 1942
After the attack on Pearl Harbor, many Americans feared that there were Japanese-American spies who are helping the Japanese to secretly bring the U.S. down. Due to this growing fear, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed an Executive Order 9066 in February 1942 ordering the relocation of all Americans of Japanese ancestry to concentration camps in the interior of the United States.
Normandy invasion, 1944
Normandy Invasion, also called Operation Overlord, during World War II, the Allied invasion of western Europe, which was launched on June 6, 1944 (the most celebrated D-Day of the war), with the simultaneous landing of U.S., British, and Canadian forces on five separate beachheads in Normandy, France. By the end of August 1944 all of northern France was liberated, and the invading forces reorganized for the drive into Germany, where they would eventually meet with Soviet forces advancing from the east to bring an end to the Nazi Reich.
G.I. Bill, 1944
The G. I. Bill of Rights or Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs or G. I.s) as well as one-year of unemployment compensation. It also provided loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses. Considered an extremely successful government program to both help veterans and boost the US economy.
Yalta Conference, 1945
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Potsdam Conference, 1945
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
Decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan
Many reasons - save American lives, end the war quickly, etc.; raised questions about American values
Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945
The two Japanese cities on which Truman ordered the dropping of atomic bombs; August 6 and August 9, 1945, respectively. About 250,000 Japanese died, either immediately, or as a result of prolonged suffering caused by radiation poisoning as a result of the two bombs. Reasons for dropping bomb: save American soldiers lives, end war more quickly, prevent Soviet claims in Japan. Criticisms: Japan had already asked for surrender terms, nukes dropped more to show off to Soviets (first shots of Cold War) than to win WWII which was already near-certain to be won by US.
Why 1945 - 1980 was chosen as the dates for period 8
1945 = End of WWI/Beginning of the Cold War; 1980 = election of Ronald Reagan, conservative movement
Coined by George Kennan; urged the US to keep communism from spreading (Contain communism)
"Iron Curtain" speech, 1946
Term coined by British PM Winston Churchill referring to a political barrier that after WWII isolated the peoples of Soviet-dominated communist Eastern Europe from the US-dominated democratic capitalist Western Europe. "Iron Curtain" would last until many countries in Eastern Europe had democratic revolutions in the 1980s
Truman Doctrine, 1947
stated that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to resist internal left-wing (and therefore it was assumed "communist") movements and prevent them from falling into the Soviet sphere. Early example of application of "containment" doctrine - that the US would take action to stop spread of communism. Some see this as beginning of Cold War.
Marshall Plan, 1947
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe on condition they wouldn't go communist. Helped contain communism in Europe and helped our economy as Europe bought from US businesses to rebuild.
Taft-Hartley Act, 1947
anti-union law passed by increasingly conservative Congress over Truman's veto. Prohibited the closed shop (union only), permitted states to ban union-shop agreements (to become anti-union "right to work" states), forbade union contributions to candidates in federal elections, forced union leaders to swear in affidavits that they were not communists, and mandated an 80 day cooling off period before carrying out strikes. This enraged labor, who called it a "slave labor" law. Helped contribute to massive decline in unions.
National Security Act, 1947
Major reorganization of US military after WWII to fight Cold War. It creating the Department of Defense (replacing Dept. of War) in a new building - the Pentagon. Also established the National Security Council (NSC) to advise the president on security matters and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to coordinate the government's foreign fact gathering (spying) and subvert governments and popular movements seen as contrary to the interests of US government elites.
Berlin Airlift, 1948
In June 1948, the USSR-who wanted Berlin all for themselves-closed all highways, railroads and canals into Berlin from West Germany. This, they believed, would make it impossible for the people who lived there to get food or any other supplies and would eventually drive Britain, France and the US out of the city for good. However, the US and its allies decided to supply their sectors of the city from the air. The "Berlin Airlift," lasted for more than a year and carried more than 2.3 million tons of cargo in 277,000 flights into West Berlin.
NATO formed, 1949
North Atlantic Treaty Organization was an alliance to stand against the Soviet Union (USSR). The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium, In response, the USSR would form the Warsaw Pact - an alliance of communist countries against the capitalist world.
Joseph McCarthy attacked the State Department, 1950
Joseph McCarthy, a relatively obscure Republican senator from Wisconsin, announces he has a list of 205 communists who have infiltrated the U.S. State Department. In widely publicized hearings, McCarthy bullied defendants under cross-examination with unlawful and damaging accusations, destroying the reputations of hundreds of innocent citizens and officials. In December, the Senate voted to condemn him for misconduct after he attacked the US military as full of communists. Most extreme example of Second Red Scare anti-communist hysteria.
Korean War, 1950-1953
began as a civil war between North and South Korea (which had been established by the USSR and US respectively), but the conflict soon became international when, under U.S. leadership, the United Nations joined to support South Korea and China entered to aid North Korea. The war left Korea divided along the 38th parallel. The Korean War was an example of the U.S. Cold War policies of containment and militarization, setting the stage for the further enlargement of the U.S. defense perimeter in Asia (Vietnam)
Example of Containment; US sided with South Korea against communist North Korea; some minor domestic opposition to the war
Eisenhower warned of a drastic military buildup in his farewell address
Post WWII drastic increase in births in the US (1946 - 1964); led to future issues with Social Security
More and more Americans moved to suburbs after WWII (cars, Interstate Highway System, Levittown)
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg executed, 1953
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, a married couple convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage in 1951, are put to death in the electric chair. The execution marked the dramatic finale of the most controversial espionage case of the Cold War. Specifically, they were accused of heading a spy ring that passed top-secret information concerning the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Part of Second Red Scare anti-communist hysteria
Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
unanimously held that the racial segregation of children in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. Brown claimed that Topeka's racial segregation violated the Constitution's Equal Protection Clause because the city's black and white schools were not equal to each other and never could be. Overruled Plessy v. Ferguson's "separate but equal" doctrine and would eventually led to the desegregation of schools across the South
Geneva Accords, 1954
a 1954 peace agreement between Ho Chi Minh's communists and the French after the French loss at Dien Bien Phu that divided Vietnam into communist-controlled North and non-communist South until unification elections could be held in 1956. Diem cancelled the elections when he realized the communists would win, further escalating the violence.
Joseph McCarthy condemned for misconduct, 1954
McCarthy's anti-communist witch hunt during the Second Red Scare, bullying tactics, and lack of evidence caused the public to turn against him, especially after his army hearings were televised. The Senate condemned him for his actions.
Montgomery bus boycott, 1955-56
The Montgomery Bus Boycott, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. The campaign lasted from December 1, 1955, when Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person, to December 20, 1956, when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a US Supreme Court decision that laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional. MLK Jr. led boycott protests and became a national figure as a result.
Interstate Highway Act, 1956
25 billion dollars for the construction of the Interstate Highway System over a 20-year period, it was the largest public works project in American history through that time. Passed under Eisenhower, it was justified in part by the necessity for internal transportation in case of communist attack. Stimulated growth of suburbs and economy.
Integration of Little Rock H.S., 1957
On 1st day of school at Central High, a white mob gathered, and Gov. Orval Faubus deployed state police to prevent the black students from entering. In response, the NAACP sued & won a court injunction to prevent the governor from blocking the students' entry. With the help of police escorts, the students successfully attended school, despite community harassment. Faubus closed all four of Little Rock's public high schools in 1958 to stop desegregation. In 1959, the Supreme Court ruled that the school board must reopen the schools and continue desegregation.
Civil Rights Activists
Used various techniques (sit-ins, legal challenges, etc.); post-1965, debates emerged over the proper role of activists
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 Supreme Court Case that ruled separate facilities based on race inherently unequal. Reversed Plessy v. Ferguson
VA to FL, extending to CA; saw a large population increase after WWII and rise of key industries
First man-made satellite put into orbit by the USSR. This caused fear in the US that the Soviets had passed them by in science & technology and the arms race. Democrats scorched the Republican administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower for allowing the United States to fall so far behind the communists. Eisenhower responded by speeding up the U.S. space program (NASA), which resulted in the launching of the satellite Explorer I on January 31, 1958. The "space race" had begun. In 1969, the US would land men on the moon, a major victory.
U-2 aircraft shot down by USSR, 1960
An American U-2 spy plane flown by Gary Powers is shot down while spying over the USSR. The incident derailed an important summit meeting between Eisenhower and Soviet leader Khrushchev. At first the US tried to deny what had happened, but was forced to admit it. It was a major embarrassment to the US and prompted a marked deterioration in its relations with the USSR. Powers was convicted of espionage and sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment plus 7 years of hard labor, but he was released on 10 February 1962 during a prisoner exchange.
Greensboro sit-ins, 1960
nonviolent protest against a segregated lunch counter in Greensboro, N.C., that began on Feb. 1, 1960. Its success led to a wider sit-in movement, organized primarily by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), that spread throughout the South. The sit-in was organized by Ezell Blair, Jr., Franklin McCain, Joseph McNeil, and David Richmond—all African Americans and all students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University in Greensboro. Influenced by the nonviolent protest techniques of Mohandas Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.
Eisenhower's Farewell Address, 1961
In his Farewell Address, Eisenhower warned of the necessary, but dangerous combination of the military and the industrial sector he called the MILITARY-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX. This combination ensured that the U.S. would constantly be prepared for war. Although realizing the need to have this alliance between the defense and industries, Eisenhower also recognized the potential for the rise of mis-placed power, and urged citizens to be alert so this power would never threaten democracy (as miltiary power had in the past - Caesar and Napoleon for example)
Bay of Pigs, 1961
The Bay of Pigs was a failed invasion of Cuba, planned under Eisenhower, implemented under JFK. Cuban exiles living in the US were trained by the CIA and landed in Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. They believed it would start an uprising of the Cuban people against Castro. That didn't happen, and the event was a huge embarrassment for the US and pushed Castro to seek more help from the USSR, leading directly to the Cuban Missile Crisis
Freedom Riders, 1961
civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern U.S. in 1961. They wanted to challenge local laws or customs that enforced segregation in seating and bus terminals and the non-enforcement of the U.S. Supreme Court decisions, which ruled segregated public buses unconstitutional. The Southern states had ignored the rulings and the federal government did not enforce them. Helped push Kennedy towards supporting civil rights.
Peace Corps, 1961
JFK called for volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by fighting poverty in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The work is generally related to social and economic development. Volunteers went abroad to work with governments, schools, non-profit organizations, non-government organizations, entrepreneurs in education, hunger, business, information technology, agriculture, and the environment.
Cuban Missile Crises, 1962
13 days in October 1962 when the world came the closest it ever has to nuclear war. After the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba by CIA-trained Cuban exiles, Castro agreed to allow the USSR to have Soviet nuclear missiles placed in Cuba pointed at the US. The US set up a blockade to prevent Soviet ships from approaching Cuba. Kennedy and Soviet PM Khrushchev finally reached a bargain where the Soviets wouldn't put nukes in Cuba if the US removed nukes from Turkey that were pointed at USSR
Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, 1963
(1963) Best-selling book by feminist thinker Betty Friedan. This work challenged women to move beyond the drudgery of suburban housewifery to demand a larger role in society on the basis of equality. Helped launch what would become second-wave feminist movement that would go beyond issues of suffrage to focus on economic, political, and social equality issues like equal pay for equal work and the ERA (Equal Rights Amendment)
March on Washington, 1963
a large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony at the Lincoln Memorial during the march. Widely credited as helping lead to the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the National Voting Rights Act (1965). 80% of the marchers were black. Organized by union leader A. Philip Randolph.
John F. Kennedy assassinated, 1963
In 1963 in Dallas, riding in a parade to drum up support for the upcoming presidential election in 1964, JFK was shot twice by ex-Marine Lee Harvey Oswald and pronounced dead at Parkland hospital. JFK's Vice President LBJ was immediately sworn into office. Oswald was later killed by Jack Ruby before he could stand trial.
The Great Society, 1964-65
LBJ & Democratic social reforms that sought the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation were launched during this period. The Great Society in scope and sweep resembled the New Deal domestic agenda of FDR. Most important: Medicare (health care for those over 65), Medicaid (health care for poor, disabled)
Civil Rights Act of 1964
a landmark piece of civil rights legislation in the United States that outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public (known as "public accommodations").
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 1964
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia. Led to massive escalation of Vietnam War.
LBJ's platform; increased the size and involvement of the government in society. Extension of New Deal programs and Civil Rights (24th amendment, Civil Rights Act of 1964.)
Immigration Laws of 1965
Reversed discriminatory quotas acts from the 1920s; favored immigrants from Latin America and Asia
US aided the South (non-communist); led to sizeable, passionate, and sometimes violent protests, especially as the war went on
Movement most represented by the Hippies - protested Vietnam War; rejected many ideas of their parents' generation (war, materialism, etc.); used marijuana; helped start a sexual revolution
Easing of Cold War tensions between the US and Soviet Union (Examples include: SALT I and Salt II)
Brought to the attention of the public by Rachel Carson and Silent Spring; helped lead to the creation of the EPA and Clean Air Act
Malcolm X assassinated, 1965
renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality (violent). After visiting Mecca, he moderated his views and split with the NOI, who then assassinated him.
Vietnam War escalated, 1965
On August 2, 1964, gunboats of North Vietnam allegedly fired on ships of the USNavy stationed in the GULF OF TONKIN. They had been sailing 10 miles off the coast of North Vietnam in support of the South Vietnamese navy. When reports that further firing occurred on August 4, President Johnson quickly asked Congress to respond. With nearly unanimous consent, Congress in the Tonkin Gulf Resolution gave the President a "BLANK CHECK" to wage the war in Vietnam as he saw fit. After LBJ was elected President in his own right that November, he chose escalate the conflict.
Voting Rights Act, 1965
a landmark piece of federal legislation in the US that prohibits discrimination in voting. Signed by LBJ during the height of the Civil Rights Movement. Designed to enforce the voting rights guaranteed by the 14th & 15th Amendments, the Act allowed for a mass enfranchisement of racial minorities throughout the country, especially in the South. According to the Justice Dept, the Act is widely considered to be the most effective piece of civil rights legislation ever enacted in the US.
Watts riots, 1965
a race riot that took place in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles from August 11 to 17, 1965. The six-day unrest resulted in 34 deaths, 1,032 injuries, 3,438 arrests, and over $40 million in property damage. It was the most severe riot in the city's history until the Los Angeles riots of 1992.
Miranda v. State of Arizona, 1966
(Warren) Criminal suspect's rights include being informed of rights to counsel and to remain silent.
Tet Offensive, 1968
The Tet Offensive was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968 by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army against the forces of South Vietnam, the United States, and their allies. It failed militarily, but had an enormous psychological impact on the US, showing that the war was far from over, and proving that the government was lying about the war.
Johnson withdrew from presidential race, 1968
On March 31, 1968, following Kennedy's entry into the election, the president announced that he was suspending all bombing of North Vietnam in favor of peace talks. Johnson concluded his speech announcing that he was withdrawing from the election because of his health. He died after two days of getting out of office
Martin Luther King, Jr. assassinated, 1968
On April, 4th 1968 MLK was assassinated in Mephis, Tennesse. This caused an outrage in the black community and riots across the nation.
Robert Kennedy assassinated, 1968
while running in Democratic primary in 1968 promoting civil rights and other equality based ideals he was assassinated. Nixon, a Republican, won presidency that year. Sirhan Sirhan, a 24-year-old Palestinian/Jordanian immigrant, was convicted of Kennedy's murder. He possibly could have been president.
Anti-war riots at the Chicago Democratic Convention, 1968
Where 10,000 antiwar protestors gathered outside as Hubert Humphrey was decided upon as the Democratic candidate in 1968. Gave impression of Democrats as the party of disorder, helping Nixon win with "law and order" & "silent majority" (meaning pro-war, anti-hippie) message.
AIM created, 1968
Native American activist organization in the United States. In October 1973 the American Indian Movement gathered its forces from across the country onto the Trail of Broken Treaties, championing Indian unity. The national AIM agenda focused on spirituality, leadership, and sovereignty.
Election of 1968
At the end of a difficult year, the presidential election of 1968 was held. Republican candidate Richard Nixon appealed to a nation tired of violence and unrest as the "law and order" candidate. Nixon vowed he would end the Vietnam War and win "peace with honor." Democratic nominee, Hubert Humphrey, Johnson's vice president, seemed a continuation of the old politics. In the end, Richard Nixon won.
Neil Armstrong walked on moon, 1969
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first humans on the Moon, Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, on July 20, 1969. This won the race to the moon against the USSR, who had beaten the US with Sputnik (first artificial satellite) and Yuri Gagarin (first man to orbit earth). Armstrong famously said, "that's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind."
The US policy of withdrawing its troops and transferring the responsibility and direction of the war effort to the government of South Vietnam. It is important because it would bring the end of the Vietnam war in 1973.
My Lai massacre made public, 1969
The Pentagon Papers revealed American troops brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai. Led to the opposition to the war of Vietnam
Kent State, 1970
Students protesting against the expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia by Nixon; the national guard opens fire, killing to 4 students. The impact of the shootings was dramatic. The event triggered a nationwide student strike that forced hundreds of colleges and universities to close. Added to antiwar mood that would soon force end of war.
Pentagon Papers, 1971
Secret document papers, leaded by Daniel Ellsberg, published by the New York Times in 1971, showed the blunders and deceptions that led the United States that led to the Vietnam war. Revealed the government misleading the people of its involvement in Vietnam, both about the intentions and the outcomes of the conflict.
Nixon visited China, 1972
Nixon, who was a leading anti-communist, was the 1st US president to visit China since its 1949 communist revolution. He took advantage of growing conflicts between China and the USSR over the "true" form communism, and drove a further wedge between them by improving US-China relations. "Only Nixon could go to China" has become a political metaphor that means the ability of a politician with an unassailable reputation among his supporters for defending their values to take actions that would draw their criticism if taken by someone without those credentials.
Watergate break-in, 1972
five men arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee's executive quarters in the Watergate Hotel. Senate investigations revealed they were trained by the CIA and that the White House was involved. Nixon later admitted to complicity in the burglary, in part because of the recording devices he had installed in the White House held proof he was involved. In July, 1974, Nixon's impeachment began, so he resigned - the only president in US history to do so
SALT I and the policy of detente, 1972
The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) were two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union—the Cold War superpowers—on the issue of armament control. The policy of Détente- The term is often used in reference to the general easing of the geo-political tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States which began in 1969, as a foreign policy of U.S. presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford called détente; a 'thawing out' or 'un-freezing' at a period in the middle of the Cold War.
Roe v. Wade, 1973
(Burger) Certain state criminal abortion laws violate the Due Process clause of the 14th Amendment, which protects against state action the (implied) right to privacy in the Bill of Rights (9th amendment). Abortion cannot be banned in the 1st trimester (1st 3 months), states can regulate the 2nd trimester, 3rd trimester - abortion is illegal except to save the life of the mother
OPEC oil embargo, 1973
During the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, Arab members of OPEC imposed an oil embargo against the US in retaliation for the US support for Israel. The price of oil in the US tripled causing widespread economic hardship.
Nixon resigned, 1974
The Watergate scandal led to the discovery of multiple abuses of power by the Nixon administration, articles of impeachment, and the resignation of Republican Richard Nixon, the President of the United States, on August 9, 1974—the only resignation of a U.S. president to date.
Panama Canal Treaty, 1977
Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality. Condemned by many of Carter's opponents.
Camp David Accords, 1979
The Camp David Accords were the peace accords signed by Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat after the 1973 Arab-Israeli War to finally end the Israeli-Egyptian disputes. The achievement by Carter is considered his greatest while in office.
Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, 1979
December 24, 1979 was the day that Soviet forces, after a series of perpetual pleas for assistance by the Afghan government, invaded Afghanistan, marking the beginning of the Soviet War in Afghanistan that lasted about 9 years. The two opposing sides consisted of the USSR and the democratic Republic of Afghanistan against the Sunni Mujahideen (Islamic warriors), who were supported by Pakistan, China, the US, the UK, Saudi Arabia, and Iran. These forces would later form the Taliban and al-Qaeda which would come to haunt the US in a classic case of "blowback"
Iranian hostage crises, 1979-81
On November 4, 1979, 52 American citizens and diplomats were taken hostage by a group of supporters as the Iranian Revolution took control of the US Embassy in Tehran. These hostages were held captive for 444 days. To Iran, the asylum that was granted to Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, was viewed as American complicity in the carnages enacted by the Shah, thus giving reason to their acts to take hostages. The crisis hurt President Carter's image, and the hostages were released the day before Reagan took office
Why 1980 - Present was chosen as the dates for period 9
1980 = election of Ronald Reagan, conservative movement through present day (including war on terrorism)
Taxation and deregulation as victories for conservatives
Tax rates decreased under Ronald Reagan and government regulation of businesses decreased as well
Elected in 1980, focused on denouncing "Big Government", decreasing taxes, increased military spending
Reaganomics began, 1981
refers to the economic policies promoted by President Reagan in the 1980s and is supported by most conservatives today. The policies are similar to laisezz-faire policies of the Gilded Age and 1920s Republican presidents. The five pillars of Reaganomics include: reducing size of federal government spending, reduce taxes, reduce government regulation, increase military spending, and tighten the money supply to reduce inflation. Political opponents often call this form of economics "trickle-down economics" while its advocates title it "supply side economics"
Beirut embassy bombed, 1983
On April 18, 1983, the United States Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon was attacked by a suicide bombing that killed 63 people in total. Up to that time, it was the deadliest attack on a U.S. diplomatic mission and is often thought of as the beginning of anti-U.S. attacks by Islamist groups. This attack came in the wake of the intervention of a Multinational Force in the Lebanese Civil War who's goal was to restore order and central government authority.
Soviet leader that saw improved relations with Reagan, instituted glasnost and perestroika which helped lead to the downfall of the Soviet Union
Invasion of Grenada, 1983
Ronald Reagan dispatched an invasion force to the island of Grenada, where a military coup had killed the prime minister and brought Marxists to power ----Americans captured the island quickly demonstrating Reagan's determination to assert the dominance of the US in the Carribbean
Iran-Contra scandal, 1987
The Reagan Administration illegally sold weapons in secret to the Islamic Republic of Iran while it was fighting Saddam Hussein's Iraq (also supported by the US), then used the money to illegally support brutal right-wing Contras in their attempt to overthrow the left-wing government in Nicaragua even though Congress had prohibited this assistance. Talk of Reagan's impeachment ended when presidential aides took the blame for the illegal activity.
INF Treaty, 1988
The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF) is a 1987 agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union. The treaty eliminated nuclear and conventional ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with intermediate ranges, defined as between 500-5,500 km (300-3,400 miles). The treaty was signed in Washington, D.C. by U.S. President Ronald Reagan and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev on December 8, 1987, it was ratified by the United States Senate on May 27, 1988 and came into force on June 1 of that year.
Berlin Wall torn down, 1989
The Berlin Wall was a barrier constructed by East Germany in 1961 that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and East Berlin. In 1989, after hundreds of thousands of East Germans had fled westward via Hungary and Czechoslovakia, the beleaguered East German regime lifted travel restrictions on Nov. 9, and days later the dismantling of the wall began. It became a powerful metaphor for the crumbling of communism in Eastern Europe.
Persian Gulf War, 1991
Saddam Hussein's Iraq invaded Kuwait over oil dispute on the border against US wishes (Saddam had formerly been US ally). US invaded Iraq to liberate Kuwait; Iraq set Kuwait's oil fields on fire so the Americans couldn't gain the oil; this conflict caused the US to set military bases in Saudi Arabia; also called Operation: Desert Storm.
Soviet Union dissolved, 1991
The Revolutions of 1989 that started in Eastern Europe ended with the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the end of Cold War. 1989 saw the Soviet people making a democratic choice for the first time since 1917 when they elected the new Congress of People's Deputies, and Boris Yeltsin as president. Gorbachev, the last Soviet leader, abandoned the oppressive, expensive Brezhnev Doctrine(preservation of Soviet satellite states) and decided not to use force to maintain the Soviet empire, which broke up into 15 different countries.
Oklahoma City bombing, 1995
Attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995. It remained the most destructive act of terrorism committed in the United States until 9/11/01. Killed 168 people. Destroyed or damaged 324 buildings($652 million). The official investigation, known as "OKBOMB", was the largest criminal investigation case in American history. As a result of the bombing, the U.S. government passed the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996.
Clinton impeachment trial, 1999
Two charges, one of perjury and one of obstruction of justice(no infidelity charge!). Second time in history that the House had impeached the President of the United States. Fifty Senators voted to remove Clinton on the obstruction of justice charge and 45 voted to remove him on the perjury charge; no Democrat voted guilty on either charge. Clinton was acquitted of both charges.
September 11th terrorist attacks, 2001
Four coordinated terrorist attacks launched by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda upon the US in NYC and the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. Four passenger airliners were hijacked by terrorists. 2 crashed into the World Trade Center in NYC. A third plane crashed into the Pentagon in DC. The fourth plane was targeted at Washington, D.C., but crashed into a field in Pennsylvania after passengers attacked terrorists on the plane. Led directly to 2002 invasion of Afghanistan (then the base of al-Qaeda operations) and the longest war in US history.
Conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq
Afghanistan - response to 9/11; Iraq - concerns over WMDs and terrorism (no WMDs were found); both resulted in prolonged wars, the Iraq War in particular hurt Republicans and Bush as many Americans felt misled into war.
War on terrorism
Response to 9/11, US would actively fight terrorism throughout the world
Free Trade Agreements
Goal is to increase trade among countries by reducing tariffs (NAFTA - no tariffs between US, Canada, and Mexico)
Continuing of the environmental movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Overwhelming scientific consensus (97%) is that human beings are accelerating climate change, but many conservatives continue to deny scientific evidence. Debates over sources of energy warped by influence of wealthy fossil fuel industries to media and political campaigns
Barack Obama elected, 2008
First African American president. First years in office witnessed many important new laws: Affordable Care Act (AKA "Obamacare") extended health care to millions but was controversial. Financial reform after the economic collapse at the end of the Bush Administration. Most pro-gay rights president who ended "Don't Ask Don't Tell" and was the first to endorse gay marriage. Oversaw the withdrawal of forces from Iraq and the reconstruction of the American economy. Faced rise of the Tea Party in 2010, an extremely conservative wing of Republican Party that turned increasingly conservative and hostile to Obama's policies as American politics became extremely partisan.
Alexander Hamilton's economic plan
assumption of state debts, creation of the First Bank of the US, strong support for manufacturing (proposed protective tariffs)
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