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Exam 4 questions from book
Terms in this set (72)
cocaine is a powerful nervous system ___ drug causing increased ___
- alertness and energy
cocaine comes from the ___ plant, which grows in ___.
- Erythroxylon coca
- South America
cocaine has been available for ___.
thousands of years
cocaine is considered a Schedule ___ drug.
the prevalence of cocaine powder use in the US population is approximately ___.
in the US, what is the most commonly used form of cocaine?
which region of the world has the most cocaine users?
should you be considered about your friend becoming addicted to chewing coca leaves after they tried them a few times during a trip to Bolivia?
it is unlikely this friend will become addicted to cocaine. the oral route of administration is the least effective and coca leaves are not purified cocaine so they are less likely to produce dependence
what is the difference between the recreational use of powdered cocaine and crack cocaine?
powdered cocaine: snorted directly into the nose or dissolved in water and injected. high = 30 min
crack: composed of processed freebase cocaine, cocaine salt, baking soda and water. the solution is heated and broken into little rocks, vaporized and inhaled. high = short but intense. crack is cheaper
the typical acute effects of cocaine result in ___.
alertness and arousal
the inhalation or injection routes of administration for cocaine result in ___ subjective effects, as compared to intranasal administration.
activation in which of the following brain areas correlate most strongly with cocaine-induced craving?
hippocampus & prefrontal cortex
cocaine stimulates the ___.
sympathetic nervous system & fight-or-flight response
when alcohol and cocaine are taken together, a new metabolite is formed called ___.
repeated use of cocaine results in ___.
tolerance & sensitization
what is stimulant psychosis?
it arises when blood levels of cocaine become very high, with the user becoming paranoid, irrational, and hostile. delusions/hallucinations & violent is a major concern w/ stimulant psychosis
how is addiction to cocaine typically treated today in formal treatment programs?
treatment often involves both behavioral and pharmacological approaches. ex: working with a therapist to develop coping skills to deal with drug cravings and feelings of depression
amphetamines are used therapeutically to treat what medical conditions?
- morbid obesity
the active psychoactive chemicals in bath salts are similar to the psychoactive drug found in the plant ___.
what are the common routes of administration for illicit amphetamines?
amphetamines have been in use for how long?
less than 100 years
amphetamines are listed as Schedule ___ drugs. methamphetamines are listed as Schedule ___ drugs. cathinones are listed as Schedule ___ drugs.
most illicit amphetamine found on the street by law enforcement is ___.
what is drug diversion?
drug diversion refers to the recreational use of prescription medications. ex: the use of Adderall to get high instead of help ADHD symptoms.
have amphetamines played a role in the military? how?
yes, used to allay fatigue and enhance focus on long duration missions where exhaustion is a concern and sleep cannot occur.
what is the relationship between cold medications and methamphetamine?
over-the-counter cold medications contain pseudophedrine, a key ingredient required to make meth
chronic meth use can alter the appearance of users, how?
the user's teeth may fall out & the user may develop skin lesions from chronically picking at the skin
how long does a typical amphetamine stimulant medication need to be taken for it to be effective? (better attention and focus) for an individual with ADHD?
less than one hour
___ is a medication used to treat ADHD symptoms but is not an amphetamine drug. It is ___ effective than amphetamines in the treatment of ADHD symptoms.
Strattera & less
methamphetamine abusers will often grind their teeth, which is called ___
amphetamines ___ the level of monoamines in the brain.
what is a contingency management program?
a program where incentives are given to the patient engaged in treatment and staying abstinent
can the chronic use of amphetamines result in brain damage?
yes, cell death is likely to occur. damage is dependent on the dose (high dose increases damage)
what is a drug holiday?
a period of time where a prescribed medication is not used. the purpose of these breaks is to allow patients the time to catch up on growth, gain weight and catch up on sleep.
which product contains the most caffeine (assuming that the serving size is equivalent)?
coffee! (out of tea, chocolate or soft drink)
if you were to taste a plant that contains alkaloids, what would it taste like?
which of the following is correct in terms of greatest to least amount of CNS stimulation?
caffeine, theophylline, theobromine
which country has the highest per capita caffeine consumption?
how does oral administration contribute to drug safety?
when a drug is swallowed, it must travel through the digestive system before it can be absorbed into the blood-stream to reach the final site of action, the brain. the gastrointestinal path includes the stomach and small intestine from where caffeine is absorbed into the bloodstream, is very slow. Therefore, if you administered too much drug, there is additional time to reach a hospital to treat an overdose
caffeine is considered to be an ___ drug, due to its action on ___ receptors.
the LD50 for caffeine is considered to be approximately equal to:
75 cups of coffee
Dr. Su decides to plan a study examining the acute effects of caffeine. He asks his human volunteers to not consume any caffeinated food or drink for 24 hours before entering the lab. What is one concern that should be considered about this experimental approach?
why should pregnant women limit their caffeine consumption?
during pregnancy, caffeine is rapidly absorbed and crosses the placenta freely. the developing fetus lacks the enzymes needed for caffeine metabolism. it is possible that high levels of caffeine could impair fetal growth or lead to spontaneous abortions. in newborns, withdrawal symptoms can occur, especially in newborns whose mothers are heavy caffeine consumers.
what is the lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia?
how many prescriptions for antipsychotics drugs were filled by U.S. pharmacies in 2011?
the primary mechanism by which all antipsychotic drugs control symptoms of psychosis is by antagonizing ___
___ are false perceptions and ___ are false beliefs
which antipsychotic drug is most likely to be prescribed for children and adolescents
when was the first antipsychotic drug discovered? was this drug developed initially to treat psychosis?
chlorpromazine was discovered in 1951. it was not developed initially to treat psychosis. it was developed as an anesthetic in surgery.
what has been the trend in the # of inpatients in psychiatric hospitals in the US over the last century?
after 1951, the # of inpatients declined
chronic use of antipsychotic drugs can result in a syndrome that includes involuntary movements of the mouth, tongue, trunk, arms, and legs called ___
all antipsychotic drugs decrease ___
which of the following are the most potent D2 receptor antagonists?
first-generation (traditional) antipsychotics
a phase 1 clinical trial typically includes ___.
50 healthy individuals
sally has been admitted to the hospital because she is experiencing psychotic symptoms. Her physicians believes that schizophrenia is the cause of her symptoms and starts her on antipsychotics medications. when should she start to experience relief from psychotic symptoms?
a few days
an antidepressant drug has been available for sale about a year. the FDA has been tracking suicides in adolescents who take this drug. they decide to put a black box warning on this drug given this data. where did this data come from?
generics drug typically cost ___ less than brand name drugs.
worldwide, what is the approximate one-year prevalence rate for depression?
the first psychotherapeutic medications used to treat mood and anxiety disorders were discovered in the ___
Jordan is a combat veteran who served a tour of duty in Afghanistan. since returning, he has experienced flashbacks of being in combat, nightmares, hyperarousal, and difficulty sleeping. which diagnosis is most likely?
posttraumatic stress disorder
angelina is suffering from comorbid depression and anxiety. her physician started her on an antidepressant drug, which she has taken as prescribed for about 7 days. At this point, Angelina would probably be experiencing:
side effects such as dry mouth and constipation
tolerance to the therapeutic effectiveness of antidepressants is typically observed with use that has occurred over ___.
the atypical antidepressants, such as Wellbutrin, have a mechanism of action that is similar to the action of ___.
barbiturates are no longer used to treat anxiety disorders. when and why was use of barbiturates discontinued?
they stopped being used to treat anxiety by the 1970s because they were addictive and also led to too many accidental and intentional overdose deaths
what is the relationship between a country's socioeconomic status and its rate of depression?
lower to middle income countries tend to have lower rates of depression than high-income countries
which psychotherapeutic drug is used prophylactically?
repeated use of which type of psychotherapeutic drug is most likely to result in tolerance development to its intended therapeutic effects?
one concern with prescribing lithium is that ___
the safety ratio is small
a patient experiencing a manic episode is admitted to hospital. the patient is starting on lithium but has been slow to respond. what other drug might also be used while the patient's condition is difficult to manage (until the manic episode subsides)?
benzodiazepines enhance the activity of which neurotransmitter?
focusing on the risk of overdose, which drug is the least safe?
which recreational drug is most risky when combined with the benzodiazepine, and why?
alcohol is the most risky drug to combine with the benzodiazepine because both are sedatives, and could lead to decreased respiration.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Module 7 Neural & Hormonal Systems
Module 8: The Brain
Psych Lecture (mostly ch.2)
Exam 3 questions from book
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