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study of objects beyond Earth's atmosphere


blanket of gases surrounding Earth that contains about 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen, and 1 percent other gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor


all of Earth's organisms and the environments in which they live

environmental science

study of the interactions of humans with environment


study of materials that make up Earth and the processes that form and change these materials, and the history of the planet and its life-forms since its origin


the part of Earth from its surface to its center


all the water in Earth's oceans, lakes, seas, rivers, and glaciers plus all the water in the atmosphere


the study of the atmosphere, which is the air surrounding Earth


study of Earth's oceans including the creatures that inhabit its waters, its physical and chemical properties, and the effects of human activities


standard for comparison in an experiment

dependent variable

factor in an experiment that can change if the independent variable is changed


a testable explanation of a situation

independent variable

factor that is manipulated by the experimenter in an experiment

Le System International d'Unites (SI)

replacement for the metric system; based on a decimal system using the number 10 as the base unit; includes the meter: (m), second: (s), and kilogram: (kg)

scientific methods

a series of problem-solving procedures that help scientists conduct experiments

scientific notation

a method used by scientists to express a number as a value between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10

scientific law

a principle that describes the behavior of a natural phenomenon

scientific model

an idea, a system, or a mathematical expression that represents the idea being explained

scientific theory

an explanation based on many observations during repeated experiments; valid only if consistent with observations, can be used to make testable predictions, and is the simplest explanation; can be changed or modified with the discovery of new data

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