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19 terms

Glencoe EarthScience Chapter 1

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astronomy
study of objects beyond Earth's atmosphere
atmosphere
blanket of gases surrounding Earth that contains about 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen, and 1 percent other gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor
biosphere
all of Earth's organisms and the environments in which they live
environmental science
study of the interactions of humans with environment
geology
study of materials that make up Earth and the processes that form and change these materials, and the history of the planet and its life-forms since its origin
geosphere
the part of Earth from its surface to its center
hydrosphere
all the water in Earth's oceans, lakes, seas, rivers, and glaciers plus all the water in the atmosphere
meteorology
the study of the atmosphere, which is the air surrounding Earth
oceanography
study of Earth's oceans including the creatures that inhabit its waters, its physical and chemical properties, and the effects of human activities
control
standard for comparison in an experiment
dependent variable
factor in an experiment that can change if the independent variable is changed
hypothesis
a testable explanation of a situation
independent variable
factor that is manipulated by the experimenter in an experiment
Le System International d'Unites (SI)
replacement for the metric system; based on a decimal system using the number 10 as the base unit; includes the meter: (m), second: (s), and kilogram: (kg)
scientific methods
a series of problem-solving procedures that help scientists conduct experiments
scientific notation
a method used by scientists to express a number as a value between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10
scientific law
a principle that describes the behavior of a natural phenomenon
scientific model
an idea, a system, or a mathematical expression that represents the idea being explained
scientific theory
an explanation based on many observations during repeated experiments; valid only if consistent with observations, can be used to make testable predictions, and is the simplest explanation; can be changed or modified with the discovery of new data