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APUSH Chapter 8
Terms in this set (25)
First Bank of the United States, 1791-1811 / Second Bank of the United States, 1816-1836
The First Bank of the United States charter was allowed to expire in 1811, partially because over half its stock was owned by foreigners, but also because over 80 state banks opposed its existence.
• Due to the Bank's excellent reputation for financial stability the American public preferred the notes issued by
the Bank rather than the state banks which made it difficult for state banks to compete
Second Bank of the United States, 1816-1836
As a result of the First Bank's charter expiring in 1811, prices and inflation rose and a call for another national bank led to the establishment of the Second Bank of the U.S. in 1816. This existed until President Andrew Jackson's veto of the bill to recharter the Bank and its current charter expired in 1836.
Tariff of 1816
First protective tariff that raised the average rates to about 20% and helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
Henry Clay's American System, 1816-1817
Plan to advance the nation's economic growth by the following:
• Protective tariff to promote industry and raise revenue to build a national transportation system
• A national bank to keep the plan on an even keel by providing a national currency. (2nd BUS)
• Internal improvements
Tariffs would benefits the East, internal improvements would promote growth in the West and South, and the Bank would help the economies of all sections.
• Two parts of his plan, the tariff and the national bank were already in place by 1816.
• But Presidents Madison and Monroe both thought internal improvements were unconstitutional and vetoed the
Panic of 1819
First major depression in the United States since the Constitution was adopted.
• Caused by overproduction and the reduced demand for goods after the War of 1812.
• Due to excessive land speculation the West was hit hardest by the Panic.
• The Panic was mainly the fault of the Second Bank of the United States which tightened credit to control
• The Bank foreclosed on large amounts of Western farm land and the Panic changed the political outlook of
many Westerners who now wanted land reform and opposed debtor's prison and the National Bank.
Rush-Bagot Treaty / Great Lakes, 1817
Treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain
• Provided for the mutual disarmament of the Great Lakes.
• Later expanded into an unarmed Canada / U.S. border.
Convention of 1818
Treaty between the U.S. and Britain that settled a border dispute between the U.S. and Canada which dated back to the Treaty of 1783 between the U.S. and Canada.
• Set the border between the U.S. and Canada at the 49th parallel or latitude.
• Affirmed U.S. rights to fisheries along Newfoundland and Labrador.
• Joint occupation of the Oregon Territory
Andrew Jackson / Florida, 1818
The Seminole Indians in Florida, encouraged by the Spanish, launched a series of raids. U.S. President James Monroe ordered Andrew Jackson, whose troops were on the U.S. / Florida border, to stop raids on American territory by Seminole Indians in Spanish northern Florida.
• Jackson's successful attacks convinced the Spanish that they could not defend Florida against the U.S. and
Spain decided to sell Florida to the U.S.
Transcontinental Treaty aka Adams - Onis Treaty, 1819
After Andrew Jackson's raid on Florida, Spain realized that the United States could easily take Florida by force. Consequently, Spain decided it was preferable to sell Florida rather than lose it by conquest.
• Spain ceded all of East Florida to the U.S.
• Spain gave up its claim to West Florida (the area which included much of present day Alabama and Mississippi) • The U.S. assumed $5 million in claims by American citizens against Spain
• Spain surrendered its claim to the Oregon Territory (present day Oregon, Washington and part of British Columbia).
• The U.S. gave up its claims to Texas.
Monroe Doctrine, 1823
Latin American Events, 1812-1823
After the War of 1812 the Spanish Empire began to come apart as Latin American people staged successful revolutions.
• The U.S. quickly built successful trading relations with Latin America and was second only to Great Britain as
the largest trading nation there.
• In 1815 the U.S. announced its neutrality between Spain and the colonies trying to win independence.
• In 1822 Monroe established relations with five newly independent Latin American nations. It was in this
context that the Monroe Doctrine was issued in 1823.
Doctrine issued during President James Monroe's administration, but was really the product of his Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams.
• Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a
European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S.
• Any New World colony which had gained independence could not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at
a time when many South American nations were gaining independence).
• Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. The respect it was given was due
more to the British navy rather than American military power.
• The first major U.S. foreign policy declaration concerning the Americas, although the doctrine had no major
impact until later in the 1800s.
Missouri: Tallmadge Amendment, Thomas Amendment, 1819
When Missouri applied for statehood, there was a dispute over whether it would be admitted as a slave state or a free state. The admittance of Missouri as a slave state would tip the balance of power in the Senate (evenly divided between 11 slave and 11 free states) to the South.
• The Tallmadge Amendment was a bill that forbid any new slaves being brought into Missouri and gradual
emancipation of the slaves already there.
• The Thomas Amendment was a bill which would have admitted Missouri as a slave state but forbid slavery
north of the 36°30' latitude in the Louisiana Purchase region.
• Neither bill was put into effect, but the amendments demonstrated the emerging sectional conflict over slavery.
Missouri Compromise, 1820
Congressional sectional compromise put together by Henry Clay to solve the deadlock between the North and the South over the admittance of Missouri to the Union.
• Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slave state.
• Maine was admitted as a free state.
• Slavery was banned in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase territory above the latitude of 36°30.
"Era of Good Feeling," 1817-1823
Term coined by a newspaper editor to describe the non-partisan political atmosphere during President James Monroe's two terms.
• The era was characterized by a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion.
• The Democratic-Republicans were the dominant party since the Federalist party had declined after the War of
1812 to a local party.
• The beginnings of North-South tensions over slavery.
Election of 1824 / "Corrupt Bargain," 1825
Four candidates ran for President and no one had a majority of the electoral vote, so the election went to the House of Representatives. All of the candidates were calling themselves by some variation of the label "Democrat."
• Andrew Jackson won 42% of the popular vote but did not win the majority of the electoral vote.
• John Quincy Adams took 32% of the popular vote.
• William Crawford was ill and was no longer in the running by the time the election went to the House.
• Henry Clay, in the House of Representatives vote, threw his support to Adams.
• Adams, in return, gave Clay the position of Secretary of State.
• Since Jackson had won the popular vote and had the largest number of electoral votes, he believed he had
been cheated out of the presidency due to the "corrupt bargain" between Adams and Clay.
Democrats / National Republicans, 1828
After the 1824 election, part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson.
• They favored nationalistic measures like the recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal
improvements at national expense.
• They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful.
• They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalism.
• The National-Republicans joined with the Whigs in the 1830's.
Andrew Jackson's supporters took the name of Democratic-Republicans and ran on a platform of opposing privilege and more opportunity for all Americans, regardless of class.
Election of 1828: Andrew Jackson v. John Quincy Adams
Democratic-Republican Andrew Jackson v. National Republican John Quincy Adams.
• This was a vicious campaign on both sides. Jackson was particularly enraged when Adams' supporters labeled
his wife an adulteress and they blamed Adams when Jackson's wife died shortly after the election.
• This was a decisive election: Jackson got 56% of the popular vote and 178 electoral votes to Adams' 83
Jacksonian Revolution of 1828
When Andrew Jackson was elected president from humble beginnings, people thought he could make the American Dream come true. Jackson appointed common people to government positions.
• Jefferson's emphasis on farmers' welfare gave way to Jackson's appeal to city workers, small businessmen, and farmers.
• Jackson was the first non-aristocrat and American who lived west of the Mississippi River to be elected president. Jackson's election was seen as the revolution of the "Common Man."
Concern only for the interests of one part of a country, typically one's own. In the nineteenth century, growing sectionalism emerges between the North and the South over economic issues (such as the tariff) and the slavery issue.
Fletcher v. Peck, 1810
The case involved land fraud in Georgia. The Georgia legislature had issued many land grants in a corrupt deal. Then another legislative session repealed that action because of the corruption. The Supreme Court decided the original contract, despite the corruption was still valid.
• This was the first time the Court ruled a state law unconstitutional.
• The Court reaffirmed the sanctity of contracts.
Martin v. Hunters Lessee, 1816
Denny Martin, a Loyalist who had land confiscated during the American Revolution sued Virginia to get his land returned on the grounds that Virginia's actions overruled treaties with the British that guaranteed protection of Loyalist property. The Virginia state court refused to return Martin's property, but the Supreme Court reversed the decision on appeal.
• The Court established its authority to overrule certain state court decisions.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 1819
Case involved a law of New Hampshire that changed Dartmouth College from a private to a public college. The Supreme Court struck down the law on the grounds that a contract for a private corporation could not be changed by the state without the consent of both parties.
• Reaffirmed the sanctity of contracts.
• Severely limited the power of state governments to control corporations, which were the emerging form of
business. The ruling freed corporations from the states who created them.
McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819
This decision upheld the power of Congress to charter a bank as a government agency, and denied the state the power to tax that agency.
• Ruling supported the idea of the "implied powers" clause and a broad interpretation of the Constitution.
• Reaffirmed the supremacy of federal power over state power.
Cohens v. Virginia, 1821
Convicted the Cohens of selling Washington D.C. lottery tickets authorized by Congress in Virginia. The Supreme Court upheld the conviction.
• This decision upheld the Court's jurisdiction to review a state court's decision where the case involved breaking
Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824
Gibbons received a monopoly from New York to operate a steamboat between New York and New Jersey. Ogden got the same monopoly through Congress.
• Ruled the New York monopoly was unconstitutional.
• Court decided that only Congress could regulate interstate commerce, including navigation, so the decision
strengthened the federal government's right to regulate commerce.
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