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James I (1603-1625) general

King after Elizabeth I...ruled by divine right...fought with parliament and with the Puritans...the first Stuart king...also King of Scotland

Charles I (1625-1649) general

ruled England without parliament for 11 years...supported archbishop Laud's efforts to suppress Puritanism...executed by Parliament

Peter the Great (1682-1725) general

first tsar to travel to the west...wanted to modernize Russia...reformed the Orthodox church...issued the Table of Ranks...of the Romanov family

Table of Ranks

social position and privileges became based on an individual's rank in the military or bureaucracy rather than on their noble status


russian nobility

English Civil War

Charles I tried to advocate the divine right of kings and bring more absolutist policies to England. He was also seen as bringing too much Catholic influence to the Church of England. War broke out between Parliament's supporters(Roundheads)and the kings's supporters(Cavaliers). Later Charles I was tried and executed in 1649 as a"tyrant,traitor,murderer,and public enemy". Oliver Cromwell,leader of military,ruled England as "Lord Protector" until 1658.


A group consisting of puritans, country land owners, and town based manufacturers, led by Oliver Cromwell; fought against the Cavaliers during the English civil war

Oliver Cromwell

English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.

Long Parliament

1640. Charles I. after failure of two month short parliament. parliament demanded more rights. certain high leaders be tried. Laud eventually executed. star chamber abolished. parliament could not be dissolved without its consent. called every three years.

Short Parliament

First parliament that Charles II called, was dismissed quickly for trying to introduce reforms and conditions on Charles

Petition of Right (1628)

Stated that the king could not use fored loans on new taxation with out consulting parliment, in return parliment would grant new funds to the king. Charles I eventualy agreed

Battle of Lepanto

a naval battle fought between a Spanish and Venetian fleet and the German navy. The Spanish won. The battle meant that European navies ahd surpassed the Muslims. The Turks could no longer challenge Europeans on international routes.

liberum veto

voting in Polish parliament had to be unanimous for changes to be made; thus, little could be done to systematically strengthen the kingdom

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