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prime minister under George III, first lord of the Treasury, instituted taxes and regulations to help pay off the F/I war debt
Currency Act (1764)
act implemented by George Grenville that prohibited the printing of money in the colonies, caused deflated value of colonial money and hurt the economy
Sugar Act (1764)
Parliament's tax on refined sugar, related to Revenue Act, also cut Molasses Act duty in half
Stamp Act (1765)
Parliament required that revenue stamps be affixed to all colonial printed matter, documents, dice, and playing cards; the Stamp Act Congress met to formulate a response, and the act was repealed the following year
military tribunals composed only of a judge, not local common-law jury, Sugar Act required that offenders be tried in these courts rather than local courts, provoking opposition from smugglers accustomed to acquittal before sympathetic local juries
governor of Virginia, Founding Father, delivered "Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death!" speech, advocate of the American Revolution, against government corruption, passed Virginia Resolve (essentially, no taxation without representation)
Lawyer and political leader who fought the writs of assistance and later became a member of the Massachusetts Assembly and a founding member of the Sons of Liberty
Stamp Act Congress
congress that met in October, 1765 that asked for the Stamp Act to be repealed, comprised of 27 delegates from 9 colonies, eventually succeeded when Grenville was replaced
Lieutenant governor of Massachusetts, house attacked by a mob in response to the Stamp Act, told Mass. Assembly that his pay would come from customs revenues, thus bypassing the assemblies' power over him
Sons of Liberty
Secret organizations formed by Samuel Adams, John Hancock, and other radicals in response to the Stamp Act; they impeded British officials and planned such harassments as the Boston Tea Party
Declaratory Act (1766)
a declaration by the British Parliament, accompanied the repeal of the Stamp Act, stated that Parliament's authority was the same in America as in Britain and asserted Parliament's authority to make laws binding on the American colonies
Townshend Act (1767)
Parliamentary measures (named for the Chancellor of the Exchequer) that punished the New York Assembly for failing to house British soldiers, taxed tea and other commodities, and established a Board of Customs Commissioners and colonial viceadmiralty courts
Writs of Assistance
One of the colonies' main complaints against the British, allowed search warrants without cause to look for evidence of smuggling
Restraining Act (1767)
Act for restraining and prohibiting the Governor, Council, and House of Representatives, of the Province of New York, until provisions could be made for furnishing the King's Troops
John Dickinson and Letters from a Farmer
Philadelphia lawyer who protested the Townshend Acts in his Twelve Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer, arguing that Parliament might regulate commerce and collect duties, but it had no right to levy taxes for revenue, whether they were internal or external
Massachusetts Circular Letter
written by Sam Adams, argued that the Townshend Acts were unconstitutional because the colony of Massachusetts was not represented in Parliament, ignited violence leading to stationing of British troops in Boston
Boston Massacre (1770)
Clash between British soldiers and a Boston mob, March 5, 1770, in which five colonists were killed
The Gaspee Incident
British schooner that accidentally ran aground in Providence, Rhode Island, a crowd from the town boarded the ship, removed the crew, and burned the ship, led to the creation of the Gaspee Commission, which bypassed Rhode Island courts
Sam Adams and Sons of Liberty
Massachusetts Assembly member and founding member of the Sons of Liberty, also a distant cousin of John Adams
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