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Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (62)

Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)
One of the most well-researched stress management programs is mindfulness-based stress reduction. (MBSR) 8-week course instructing mindfulness through the practice of meditation, body scan (a type of guided awareness), and hatha yoga.
One of the strengths of MBSR is that it offers participants different mindfulness practices from which to choose. (Body Scan, Sitting Meditation, Walking Meditation)

Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)
Unlike CBT, there is little emphasis in Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on changing the content of thoughts; rather, the emphasis is on changing awareness of and relationship to thoughts. Aspects of CBT included in MBCT are primarily those designed to facilitate "decentered" views, such as "Thoughts are not facts" and "I am not my thoughts" Mindfulness training differs from traditional cognitive-behavioral treatment in important ways. For example, mindfulness training does not include the evaluation of thoughts as rational or distorted, or systematic attempts to change thoughts judged to be irrational. Instead, participants are taught to observe their thoughts, to note their impermanence, and to refrain from evaluating them.

Acceptance and Commitment therapy (ACT) & Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT)
The aim of acceptance strategies (i.e., Core Mindfulness and Distress Tolerance) in Action and Commitment
Therapy (ACT)
Dialectical Behaviour Therapy is to develop openness toward private experience, detachment from the
content of thought, and willingness to live with whatever shows up in the present moment
Principles for intervening with individuals in distress must take into account the fact that distressing thoughts
and feelings cannot be changed
Thoughts and feelings are under contextual control and either one must attempt to avoid them (i.e., suppress
them) or learn to take an attitude of acceptance toward them
DBT emphasizes a balance of acceptance and change in order to assist individuals in their efforts to develop
lives worth living.
A philosophical perspective of dialectics is used to reconcile the seemingly incompatible truths emphasized in
a Western technological perspective of change and control and an Eastern focus on mindfulness and
1. Pre-session change; Since the time that you made the appointment (decision to meet a counsellor) what have you noticed that is already better?
Find out about any positive change or progress in the problem situation in recent times
Ask the person to give you their sense or idea about why this change has happened and what it might take to continue positive change in the future

2. The miracle question: helps clients look beyond the problem & toward a goal (future, solution)
Create a sense of a problem-free future or a future with hope and possibilities
Assume positive change will happen
Help the person imagine a time after the problem is gone

3. Exception finding questions; When are you feeling a little bit less __________?
Find out about times when the problem would have been expected but didn't occur
"So what was different from the way you have usually handled it?"
Discover times when the problem is not quite as severe
Can you recall a time when you thought you would binge but instead you resisted the urge?
Find out what the person is doing when the problem is not happening

4. Scaling questions; "On a scale of 1 to 10, how _________ are you right now?"
You can use scaling questions to ask about progress as well as a variety of issues and concerns such as: safety issues, how hopeful, how determined, confidence, desire, sadness, proud, and host of other topics that will help the client to decide his/her own appraisal of situations.
"How did you manage to get all the way up to 2? That's 100% improvement from the day you called. How did you do it? "
"What would it take you to move up ½ or 1 point higher?

5. Coping questions; when the situation is not improving**
Coping questions: "How come things haven't gotten worse?" (no progress)
Find out how the person has been coping positively with the problem
Ask the person what advice that they would give to others who are trying to cope successfully with a similar situation. Remember that coping is a strength!
Sometimes these types of statements are useful and helpful (eg. I shouldn't drive after I've been drinking) but they can become unhelpful when you put unreasonable demands or pressure on yourself.
We all think things should be a certain way, but let's face it, they aren't.
"Should and must thoughts" are any thought that contains "should" or "shouldn't or must"
• "I should get things right"
• "I must never get upset with my partner"
• "I should always cook exquisite meals"
• "People should always keep their promises"
• "She should know better than that"
Should thoughts can be about what you should/shouldn't do/think/feel or what other people should/shouldn't do/think/feel. (Should thoughts often feel judgemental)
The most problematic should thoughts are often also all-or-nothing thoughts. You can usually spot these by the presence of "always" or "never" in the thoughts.
• "I should always say yes when someone asks me to do something."
• "I shouldn't ever break a commitment."
• "I should always get A's."
• "My partner should always do what I want."
David is sitting in his therapist's waiting room. His doctor is running late. David sits stewing, thinking, "With how much I'm paying him, he should be on time. He ought to have more consideration." He ends up feeling bitter and resentful.
Counsellor role:
Help the client to concentrate on what they can change. What is realistic to be able to control? Their mental health is more important than "the way things should be." Is it true that something "should be" or is it a preferred outcome that is not attainable?
The goals of modifying your 'should' thoughts are:
♦ (a) to develop mindful awareness that your thoughts are just thoughts and not necessarily facts
♦ (b) defuse the intensity of your 'should' thoughts and get increased psychological distance from your thoughts
♦ To do this, try replacing the word should with "could" or "prefer" and use whichever fits best
♦ "I would prefer my partner did everything I want."
♦ "I could always say yes whenever someone asks me to do something."
♦ "I would prefer to always get A's."
Labelling and Mislabelling
Making global statements about ourselves or other people which are based only on behaviour in specific situations (Not AOP).
By defining a person by one specific (usually negative) behaviour we ignore the other positive characteristics and actions.
When we label ourselves, we set ourselves up to become whatever that label entails. This can just as easily work to our advantage.
♦ You drop a glass while washing the dishes and think to yourself "I'm such an idiot"
♦ Someone can't make it to your birthday party and you think "they are so inconsiderate"
Donna just cheated on her diet. "I'm a fat, lazy pig" she thinks. What Donna has done is label herself as lazy and hopeless. She most likely will reason that since she can't lose weight, she may as well eat. She has now effectively trapped herself by living up to the label she placed on herself
Counsellor Role:
Here's what Donna could have done to make labeling work in her favor.
♦ She could have considered the fact that up until now she has been strong.
♦ She could then forgive herself for only being human and acknowledge that she has been working hard to lose weight and has been succeeding.
♦ This is a temporary setback that she can overcome.
♦ Overall, she is a strong person and has proven it by her successful weight loss.
♦ With this type of thinking, Donna will feel better and be back to work on her weight loss goals in no time.

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