AP Human Geography-Unit 4 Terms Agriculture
Terms in this set (45)
Rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water.
Agribusiness (Corporate Agriculture)
Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership of large corporations.
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
The cultivation of seafood under controlled conditions.
Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.
The largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can support.
A grass that yields grain for food.
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil.
A form of commercial agriculture that specializes in the production of milk and other dairy products.
Degradation of land, especially in semi-arid areas, primarily because of human actions such as excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting. Also known as semiarid land degradation.
Dietary Energy Consumption
The amount of food that an individual consumes, measured in Kilocalories (Calories in the United States).
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
First Agricultural Revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, it achieved plant domestication and animal domestication.
Physical, social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
A living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
Warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere.
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
Hunting and Gathering
The killing of wild game and the harvesting of wild plants to provide food in traditional cultures.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture characteristics of Asia's major population concentrations in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Accounts for virtually all olive oil produced worldwide.
Metes and Bounds System
A system that relies on descriptions of land ownership and natural features such as streams or trees.
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
Approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs.
Capturing fish faster than they can reproduce.
The Malay word for wet rice, increasingly used to describe a flooded field.
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
a system of monoculture for producing export crops requiring relatively large amounts of land and capital.
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
A resource that can be used again.
A system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
A flooded field for growing rice.
Second Agricultural Revolution
Dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, it witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce.
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Slash-and-Burn Agriculture (Swidden)
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
The wearing away of a fields topsoil by water or the environment.
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family.
The ability to meet humanities current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
Third Agricultural Revolution
Currently in progress, it has as its principal orientation the development of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's).
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named for the Middle English word truck, meaning "barter" or "exchange of commodities".
Dietary energy consumption that is continuously below the minimum requirement for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out light physical activity.
Von Thunen Model
Because the purpose of commercial farming is to sell produce off the farm, the distance from farm to market influences the farmer's choice of crop to plant. Explains the importance of proximity to market in the choice of crops on commercial farms.
Johan Von Thunen
A German estate owner who proposed the Von Thunen Model. His model was based off of the spatial arrangement of different crops through his experience as the owner of a large estate. He found that specific crops were grown in different rings around the cities in the area.