Art Appreciation: Chapter 12
Terms in this set (32)
The term sculpture describes artworks that occupy space. These artworks are created through a number of processes. The three basic categories of sculpting are modeling, casting, and carving. Each category is discussed in this chapter along with more contemporary types of sculpture such as kinetic, assemblage, and installation. Descriptions of many of these media and examples are explored to reveal their individual characteristics.
• Sculpture meant to be seen from all
sides is called in the round or
• A sculpture that is not freestanding but
projects from a background surface is in
relief. In low relief or bas-relief
sculpture, the projection from the
surrounding surface is slight
• In high relief sculpture, more than half
of the natural circumference of the
modeled form projects from the
surrounding surface, and figures are
often substantially undercut
• Modeling is a manipulative and often
• Because most casting involves the
substitution of one material for another,
casting is also called the substitution or
• Carving away unwanted material to
form a sculpture is a subtractive
• For most of recorded history, the major
sculpting techniques in the Western
world were modeling, carving, and
casting. Early in the twentieth century,
assembling methods became popular.
Such works are called constructions.
• Assemblage is an artistic process in
which three-dimensional artistic
composition is made from putting
together found objects.
• Kinetic sculpture is sculpture that
• An installation artist transforms a
space by bringing into it items of
Sculpture occupies height, width, and depth. Therefore sculpture is three-dimensional art. Sculpture has the unique ability to become part of our environment, take up our space. Not only can we see it but we can walk around it and touch it (if the museum or gallery would let us.) Unlike painting sculpture becomes part of our physical world.
There are two types of sculpture, freestanding and relief. Freestanding sculpture is meant to be viewed completely in-the-round while relief sculpture is attached to a background support.
A great example of freestanding sculpture is my own favorite David by Michelangelo. He is meant to be view from all sides or in-the-round.
Sculpture that is meant to be viewed from only one side is called relief sculpture. If the projection of the surface is shallow it is called low-relief or bas-relief. If the projection of the surface is extremely pronounced is it called high-relief. As a rule of thumb if more than half of the figure is projected from the surface is it considered high-relief. If less that half of the figure is projected it is called low-relief.
describes any piece of type of sculpture that is meant to be seen from all sides
sculpture in which 3 dimensional forms project from the flat background of which they are part
low relief (bas relief)
sculpture in relief in which the subjects emerge only slightly from the surface; no undercutting is present
sculpture in relief in which more than half of a significant portion of the subject emerges from the background; requires undercutting
working pliable material such as clay or wax into 3 dimensional forms
sculptural form produced by adding, combining, or building up material from a core or (in some cases) an armature
a process that involves pouring liquid material such as molten metal, clay, wax, or plaster into a mold; when the liquid hardens, the mold is removed, and a from in the shape of the mold is left
a process of making a work of art by casting, as opposed to additive or subtractive processes
a cavity created out of plaster, clay, metal, or plastic for use in casting
a casting method; first a model is made from wax and encased in clay or casting plaster; when the clay is fired to make a mold, the wax melts away, leaving a void that can be filled with molten metal or other self hardening liquid to produce a cast
subtractive process in which a sculpture is formed by removing material from a block or a mass of wood, stone, or other material, with the use of sharpened tools
sculpture made by removing material from a larger block or form
circular, often dome shaped, decoration that protruded from a flat surface
sculpture made by assembling found or cast-off objects that may or may not contribute their original identities to the total content of the work
a type of sculpture in which parts move, usually suspended parts activated by air currents
an art medium in which the artist arranges objects or artworks in a room, thinking of the entire space as the medium to be manipulated; some are site-specific
any work made for a certain place, which cannot be separated or exhibited apart from its intended environment
sculptural forms made from earth, rocks, sometimes plants, often on a vast scale and in remote locations; some are deliberately impermanent