Intro to Geo
Terms in this set (32)
The physical artifacts humans have created that are part of the cultural landscape. Buildings, roads, signs, fences, sewer systems, etc.
Cartograms take some measurable variable: total population, age of inhabitants, electoral votes, GDP, etc., and then manipulate a place's area to be sized accordingly.
The spread of a culture trait or an independent invention like agriculture.
The complex of human features, structures and other tangible objects (signage, types of housing) that show the visible imprint of humans on a landscape. The geographer associated with this concept is Carl Sauer from U.C. Berkeley who wrote an article using the term in 1927.
The spatial spreading or dissemination of a culture element (such as a technological innovation) or some other phenomenon (a culture trait like greeting with a kiss). Geographers try to trace cultural innovations back to a hearth.
The idea that, all else being equal, as the distance between two places increases, the volume of interaction between the places decreases. See also Zipf's Law.
A region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it. For example, a newspaper distribution area or a soda-bottling region. Has a node or center point. Activity dissipates as one moves away from the node.
A type of region marked by homogeneity in one or more characteristics. For example - a language region.
Literally "to write or describe the earth" in Greek. The study of the physical features of the earth and its atmosphere, and of human activity as it affects and is affected by these, including the distribution of populations and resources, land use, and industries.
Answering the "why of where." Employing the spatial perspective in answering geographic questions involves observing various geographic phenomena across space and evaluating political, cultural, economic and environmental relationships between things as they relate to spatial relationships.
Defined as the broader integration of more places around the world. Increased connectedness and interaction between places (relates to space-time compression below). Diffusion of culture, knowledge and ideas is happening faster than ever due to technology. This affects economics, culture and political viewpoints.
The area where something originates, usually a cultural trait or an innovation. In contagious diffusion places closest to the hearth are completely affected (distance decay is evident).
Absolute location is a precise point on the earth's surface as determined by latitude and longitude coordinates. This can also be expressed in the form of a physical address.
Relative location describes a place in relation other human or physical features, such as "within a day's drive of 2/3 of the U.S. population"(Cincinnati), or 295 miles southeast of Chicago.
The maps we carry in our minds of places we have been and places we have merely heard of. You devise these from seeing maps in the past or from news you hear about a place, country or region.
Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface (as in small scale map versus large scale map). Changing scale when looking at a problem in human geography involves going from local to global scale to discuss something like hunger, for example.
Small Scale Map
Depicts a large area (such as the state of Arizona) but with less detail
A place name (towns, streets, lakes, bridges, states, countries - ANY place)
Large Scale Map
Depicts a small area (such as downtown Phoenix) with great detail
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map. The most common type is the Robinson Projection. Maps that depict the entire world all have some type of distortion. Map distortion can be shape, distance, relative size, and direction, and all maps have strengths and weaknesses in the way they communicate to the map reader.
An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles (longitude). The two main meridians are the Prime Meridian and the International Date Line
A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians (latitude)
A region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity. For example, in the United states "the South" and the "Middle East" are perceptual or vernacular regions.
Areas with shared characteristics or processes. Regions are the way geographers group places with similar characteristics. Regions can be based on culture, physical geography, architectural styles, agriculture, or any activity such as industry.
A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments (e.g. satellites) that are physically distant from the area or object of study. Usually infrared photos are captured for use in map making.
The sequential imprints of occupants, whose impacts are layered one on top of the other so that these are seen in the cultural landscape. (example: German street names in OTR show German heritage, Alabama Fish Restaurant shows African-American migration, juice bar for today's "Hipsters.")
Sense of Place
The meaning and emotion people give to places such as the Lincoln Memorial or Times Square. Certain places give us a sense of home or welcome, other places may lack sense of place altogether and instead suffer from placelessness (an ugly strip mall or a long road full of fast food places).
The internal characteristics of a place, including its absolute location, its spatial character and its physical setting.
The external locational attributes of a place, including its relative location or regional position with reference to other nonlocal places.
The reduction in time it takes for something to reach another place. Distant places become more accessible.
The study of multiple phenomena across space with an effort to explain the location of those phenomena (gay neighborhoods, a language region, slums) and see connections between the same things happening in different places.
Tobler's First Law of Geography
Everything is related to everything else, but close things are more related than distant things.(Waldo Tobler). Beyond a certain distance this law may no longer hold. (Similar to distance decay)
The idea that places or things that are farther apart will have less interaction between them. See also distance decay.