Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Eoc Review Biology
Terms in this set (92)
Which of these stages will be formed when a 16-celled embryo undergoes differentiation?
Despite the differences in mature plant cells, all of them are derived from meristem cells. The three major types of tissue systems develop from the meristem. Meristems develop cells in all but which tissue?
Each cell expresses, or turns on, only a fraction of its genes. The rest of the genes are repressed, or turned off. The process of turning genes on and off is known as gene regulation. Gene regulation can occur at any point during gene expression, but most commonly occurs at the level of , when the information in a gene's DNA is transferred to mRNA.
Biochemical function within any cell is determined largely by specific enzymes. Remember, enzymes are proteins. Different sets of genes must be turned on and off in the various cell types. This is how cells.
Cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. This process is controlled by
Your three blood cell types have different sizes, shapes, and functions. Yet they all started out alike. Within each cell of your body there are , which give the instructions for cell processes. These instructions include the differentiation of your blood cells.
Karen, a famous botanist, propagates thousands of spider plants in her greenhouses. She uses a small cluster of plant cells and grows them first in a nutrient base. Just a few cells eventually grow into a new plant.
Plant cells are undifferentiated and under certain conditions, can differentiate into all three plants tissues.
Sponges, members of the phylum Porifera, are sessile filter feeders that lack tissues or organs. Instead, specialized cells have unique functions like ingesting food, support, and reproduction. Such specialization within a sponge body is a result of
As a plant grows, the stem often becomes thickened and somewhat woody since it is responsible for supporting the upper branches and leaves. Cells in this area of the plant develop
Thickened Cell Walls
As organs and organ systems continue to develop in this embryo, the eyes will contain clear, transparent lenses. How does a single group of cells differentiate to produce both the transparent lens cells as well as all the other specialized cells in the completed organism?
Each cell selectively uses certain genes to make specific proteins not found in any other cell types.
States that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic unit of life, and cells come from pre-existing cells.
This operation is the inverse of multiplication.
The process of nuclear division in cells that produces daughter cells that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell.
The series of events in a eukaryotic cell that involve growth, replication and division.
This is the first cell of a new individual, formed by the fusion of a sperm and egg at fertilization
As plants grow, stems and branches thicken or increase in girth. This thickening is a result of cells in the vascular cambium. Vascular cambium can develop into either xylem or phloem tissue within a plant. Because of this unique ability, we would expect vascular cambium cells to have all but one of these characteristics.
Woody, Reinforced cell walls
Cell differentiation is the process by which differences arise between cells. All higher organisms develop from a single cell, the fertilized egg gives rise to the various specialized tissues and organs. The formation of tissues and organs are only possible because of the cell differentiation process
Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are the three types of human blood cells that have
Different functions but work as one connective tissue.
A typical human cell expresses only about 5% of its genes at any time. The expression of a gene can be regulated during any step in the transition from a gene to a protein. In each step, there is a control point where the gene can be turned on or turned off. The gene expression can direct embryonic development during cellular differentiation in an embryo. The proteins responsible for the regulation are called
When bone marrow cells go through the cell cycle, the two identical daughter cells that result from mitosis have very different functions. Following G1, one daughter cell leaves the cell cycle and becomes a specialized blood cell. The second daughter cell remains in the marrow as a stem cell and repeats the cell cycle.
Cells that have differentiated still have most of their genes and they
Can still replicate those genes
Mel and Carl conducted an experiment to verify their hypothesis that male eggs of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis only hatch at low temperatures. They conducted an experiment and their results were tabulated in the data table. Mel and Carl concluded very high temperatures killed unhatched alligators. What comment(s) would you make to Mel and Carl regarding their conclusions?
They could amend their conclusion and say that the higher temperatures result in more males dying and that the gender of hatchlings is incubation-temperature dependent.
Specialized cells in plant roots ensure that they grow down into the soil to find water and nutrients. This plant response by specialized cells is called
A macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, which is used by the body for growth and repair.
The conditions that surround someone or something. These conditions and influences affect the growth, health, progress, etc., of someone or something.
This is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type.
This is the process that organisms undergo beginning with fertilization and continuing until an organism reaches maturity. It includes cell division and differentiation.
This is a segment of DNA on the chromosome that is coded for a particular trait.
The cells that make up plant leaves are specialized in structure and function to allow them to produce food from sunlight in the process known as photosynthesis. Which statement below BEST summarizes why plant leaves are specialized structures that are generally flat and thin?
To maximize the amount of light transmission through the cell layers
This image is of a human embryo. It took many weeks of development to get to this stage. Prior to this, all of the human cells were not differentiated, and the organism would have simply looked like a grouping of all the same type of cells. What is the name given to the type of cells in humans that are not differentiated?
Stem cells begin to transform into different types of cells in the human body in a process known as cell
Scientists believe that land plants, such as the examples seen here, evolved from single-celled green algae. Single-celled algae first evolved a colonial form, as noted in Volvox, and eventually developed organs for reproduction as well as food and water conduction. One key process in this evolution was
Consider the new definition of life. If you were to argue that a virus or a single mitochondria were, in fact, alive based on this definition, you would be ignoring the main tenet of
Which is NOT part of the Cell Theory?
Microscopic organisms are not made of cells.
According to biogenesis, these four organisms began their life as
A single cell and relied on mitosis for cell replication.
What part of the cell theory MOST implies that viruses, for all of their similarities to living cells, cannot be considered a life form according to definition?
All living things are made of one or more cells.
Many scientists classify viruses as non-living. The single, MOST important reason why viruses are classified as non-living is that they
Are not composed of cells.
The creature in the photograph is a protist, which is composed of only one cell. This means that a protist
Is a living organism
New cells are created from
Your teacher gives you a task in science class. You must decide which of the five samples you are given are alive or were once alive. One specimen is a crusty gray-green object. What is the BEST clue you could use to decide: living thing or not a living thing?
Is it made of cells
Cara and Chuck were looking at pond water through a microscope. They saw this image. Cara wondered what it was. Chuck said it had to be a living thing because it was
Made of Cells
Cara and Chuck were looking at pond water through a microscope. They saw small square crystals in their slide. Cara wondered what it was. Chuck said it could not be any living thing because it was not
Made of Cells
This holds an organisms hereditary information.
This is the process of cell reproduction where cell splits into two daughter cells.
A thin, flexible, semipermeable barrier around the cell which regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
A single stranded nucleic acid that plays a role in protein synthesis.
He was an English scientist, who first described and named cells in 1665, when he observed a slice of cork.
All organisms begin life as a ____________ cell.
The illustration shows the basic unit of life. It is
When scientists classify living things, they do not include viruses. This is because viruses
Are not made of one or more cells.
The Cell Theory states that
All living things are made of cells.
The organelle identified in the picture as #10 helps the cell maintain homeostasis in what way? This organelle is the smaller white circularly shaped organelle found in the top middle of the image.
Storage of needed components or cellular waste.
The organization of a cell could be compared to a small city. All of the organelles inside of the cell have a specific purpose that helps the cell to function properly.
What type of cell is C?
Which type of cell contains DNA enclosed in a nucleus?
The cell wall is tough, flexible and fairly rigid layer that surrounds some types of cells. It is located outside the cell membrane and provides cells with structural support and protection. All BUT ONE type of organism has cells with cell walls. That is a(n)
This part of the cell stores wastes, water or food.
In a typical cell membrane, phospholipids arrange themselves to form a
In the illustration, the long, whiplike extensions on the bottom of the cell are called
Many plant cells have a single, large _________ __________ that is filled with fluid.
This is a slide of human cheek cells. After scraping the inside of their mouths, students in Ms. Gordon's class smeared the swab on a slide and stained them blue. These cells are parts of a large, complex organism, a human. But these cells. like the other cells in the human body all have an important organelle, seen here. It stains dark blue and is the control center of the cell. What is this organelle?
We would expect cells found in the digestive glands of animals to contain relatively large amounts of which cellular organelle?
Homeostasis will be MOST affected by the removal of the
Which feature is found most often in prokaryotic cells?
Which plant cell organelle uses light energy to produce sugar?
Because of their function, we would expect muscle cells to have a large number of which cellular organelle?
The powerhouse of the cell: that is a term used to describe the ______________, because it's main function is to produce energy for cellular activities.
Identify the name of the cell organelle G in the graphic.
Which two structures are found ONLY in plant cells?
Cell walls and chloroplasts
As the messenger RNA is translated by the ribosome, the growing polypeptide chain is inserted into the membrane of the _____________ before being sent to its final destination.
Letter D is the part of the cell that makes proteins. What is letter D?
In cells, the production of proteins is handled by the ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum, while the processing and packaging of proteins is handled by the _________ body.
The cells in our body are actually quite similar to unicellular, organisms, like the one seen here. Feeding, removing waste, reproducing: all actions they both have in common. What else do we have in common with this unicellular organism?
skin:human body as _____:cell
Mushrooms, algae, and protozoa are all examples of
Which organelle is the powerhouse of the cell, the site of cellular respiration?
The building of proteins, or translation, occurs on which number-labeled organelle?
In this typical animal cell, which structure would be used for locomotion?
These characteristics describe the _______________ of a cell.
Plant and animal cells have a lot in common. In fact, they are more alike than different. What organelles can you find in BOTH types of cells?
Membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm,
Which of the numbered labels is pointing to a transport organelle in the diagram?
6 and 7
Unlike other organelles, chloroplasts and mitochondria contain their own genetic information in the form of
Consider the diagram of a eukaryote and a prokaryote. According to cell theory,
Both are single cells that carry out the functions of life.
One difference between mitochondria and chloroplasts is
Mitochondria produce water from oxygen while chloroplasts produce oxygen from water.
How does the vacuole (10) in this animal cell differ from the vacuole in a plant cell?
It is smaller and does not give shape to the animal cell.
The site of photosynthesis in a plant cell is the
A cell with chloroplasts and a cell wall made of cellulose would likely belong to a(n)
Oak tree from Kingdom Plantae
According to evolutionary theory, the cell on the right appeared first. _________________ were among the first photosynthetic forms of this organism.
What is the function of the organelle identified in the picture?
Houses the cell's DNA
What is the smallest unit that can carry on all functions of life?
Viruses have all of the characteristics of living things EXCEPT
According to cell theory, scientists do not classify a virus as living because it does not have
Sets with similar terms
Week Eight Vocabulary: Cell Organelles
Chapter 10 biology
Biology Chapter 10
Biology Test: Topic 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5
Other sets by this creator
Economics eoc study guide
page 74 spanish ap
thursday sept 27
Other Quizlet sets
7 - Thermal Agents
SOC 310 Exam 1, ch 1 & 2
CELL BIOLOGY FINAL EXAM REVIEW (Exam 2)
To support, protect, and strengthen plants
This gas is released by anaerobic decomposition in landfills and the guts of cattle and has a global warming potential of 23-25 over a 100 year time period.
What effects the rate of diffusion across the membrane?
Some species of ferns have over 1200 chromosomes. This means there are at least 2600 (or 4.15x10180) possible arrangements of chromosomes in Metaphase I. These possible combinations are explained by Gregor Mendel's principle of: