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Test 5 ALL CHAPTERS questions
Terms in this set (76)
Which processes are regulated by the two hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary gland? Where are these two hormones made & stored?
- ADH increases water retention by the kidneys to main blood osmolarity
- ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) *vasopressin: promotes urine production
- Oxytocin affects breast feeding, birth, and feelings of intimacy
ADH and Oxytocin are made by the neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus!
Store in the posterior pituitary!
Which brain structure integrates the nervous and endocrine system?
How do the releasing and inhibiting hormones secreted by the hypothalamus regulate hormone secretion by the anterior pituitary gland?
Hypothalamic inhibiting hormones:
- Dopamine inhibits prolactin release
- Somatostatin inhibits GH and TSH release
- MIH inhibits MSH release
BETA-ENDORPHINS = PAIN REDUCTION
How does testosterone prepare the male body to reproduce (coordinate puberty)?
Puberty! Anatomical, behavioral, and physiological changes occur
How does estrogen prepare the female body to reproduce?
Puberty! Anatomical, behavioral, and physiological changes occur (Secretions...breast and adipose tissue as an adult)
How does testosterone affect female biology?
Increase: bone density, libido (interest in sex), and musculature
Which processes are regulated by the hormones secreted by adipose tissue?
Angiogenesis (blood vessel formation), the immune system and wound repair, and LDL levels in blood!
*Resistin increases LDL levels, increasing heart disease risk
How could triglyceride storage levels in adipose tissue influence the timing of puberty in females?
Estrogen secretion connects reproduction to food availability! This secretion can accelerate the onset of puberty
How do the adrenal glands regulate the body's response to short-term stress?
*Epinephrine & norepinephrine
- Glycogen broke down to glucose (increase blood glucose)
- Increased blood pressure
- Increased breathing rate & HEART RATE
- Increased metabolic rate (glycolysis)
- Blood flow pattern changes, leading to increased alertness and decreased digestive, excretory, and reproduce system activity
How do the adrenal glands regulate the body's response to long-term stress?
- Retention of sodium ions and water by kidneys
- Increased blood volume and pressure
- Proteins and fats broken down and converted to glucose, leading to increased blood glucose
2. Possible suppression of immune system
Which hormones stimulate appetite?
Orexin, NPY, and GHRELIN (hunger hormone)!
Which hormones suppress appetite?
Lepton, PYY, and insulin
Describe how the nervous and endocrine system maintain body termperature
1. Low temperature induces hypothalamus to secrete TRH
2. TRH causes anterior pituitary to secrete TSH
3. TSH causes thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormones
4. Thyroid hormones instruct target cells to increase metabolism & generate heat
5. Target cells release more heat to restore normal body temp
How could a tumor on the anterior pituitary perturb homeostasis?
The anterior pituitary secretes hormones that regulate other endocrine glands & some processes directly! A tumor could disturb it's ability to secrete hormones and homeostasis will not be maintained
Why is oxytocin called the intimacy hormone?
It pairs bonding, romantic feelings, intimacy, & orgasms
'Love hormone, cuddle chemical, hugging hormone' etc.
How do plants use hormones to coordinate growth?
Hormones coordinate organ growth!
*Cytokinins stimulate the division of stem (meristem) cells in shoots and roots
*Auxin (IAA) stimulates cell elongation
*Gibberellins and brassinosteroids also stimulate mitotic division
How do plants use hormones to coordinate apoptosis that related to programmed cell death and senescence or organs?
Ethylene stimulates apoptosis & senescence/aging!
Cytokinin delays senescence and leaf abscision!
How do plants use hormones to coordinate reproduction?
- Auxin and gibberellin coordinate the development of the ovary surrounding the seeds into fruit tissue
- After seed maturation, ETHYLENE produced to coordinate ripening process
- Gibberellins produced to coordinate seed germination!
How do plants use hormones to coordinate response to water stress?
Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates the water stress response!
*Induces stomata closure to reduce water loss
How do plants use hormones to coordinate phototropism?
Auxin coordinates phototropism response! "Solar tracking" increases sunlight interception that increases photosynthesis
**THe shoot bends toward sunlight
How do plants use hormones to coordinate seed dormancy and germination?
After seed maturation, ETHYLENE produced to coordinate ripening process
- Gibberellins produced to coordinate seed germination!
How are hormones transported among adjacent plant cells?
Hormones move among adjacent cells through the PLASMODESMATA in the cell walls of adjacent cells
How are hormones transported among different plant organs?
Systemically Amon plant organs in VASCULAR TISSUE (PHLOEN & XYLEN)
How does a target cell recognize the proper hormone?
Target cells require specific receptor connected to a specific transduction pathway in order to recognize & respond effectively
What some practical agricultural and commercial applications of plant hormones?
Auxin & Gibberellin: Induce seedless fruit formation
Ethylene: Applied to unripe produce to induce ripening
How is the growth and spread of pathogenic microbes restricted by skin? Mucous membranes? Saliva? Fever?
1. Our skin creates a chemical dioxin physical shield against foreign invaders
2. Mucous membranes (epithelial tissues) cover and defend all INTERNAL body surfaces expose by outside world
*Phagocytes, macrophages, chitinase enzymes, lysozyme enzymes, and mucins
3. Saliva: Anti-microbial
4. Fever: Denaturation of foreign proteins, interferon production, phagocytosis by phagocytes, and tissue repair
Which enzymes of the innate immune system attack pathogenic microbes?
Phagocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells,
What are the major types of phagocytes? What is function of each type?
1. Monocytes: develops into a macrophage
2. Neutrophil: "Guns" kill by releasing antimicrobials and DNA nets to trap invaders
3. Eosinophils: Attack viruses and multicellular invaders like parasitic worms
4. Mast cell: Stimulate inflammations and attacks multi-cellular invaders
How do our phagocytes recognize specific groups of pathogens?
They use PRRs! (Pattern recognition recetpors)
*Recognizes the unique molecular characteristics of each type of foreign invader including bacteria, fungi, etc....
How do our phagocytes import and export foreign invaders?
*Import foreign invaders by phagocytosis!
Export by destroying (apoptosis) or completely destroying invader
What is the function of pattern recognition receptors? (PRRs)
Recognize a specific pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)
Why are pattern recognition receptors expressed on the phagocyte surface?
Present at the cell surface to recognise extracellular pathogens such as bacteria or fungi
Why are pattern recognition receptors in the cytoplasm of our phagocytes?
Present in cytoplasm to recognize bacteria, viruses, and worms
Do PRRs recognize normal human protein?
How do natural killer cells recognize and destroy or cells that are virally infected or cancerous?
It induces apoptosis (death)
*In NO Class I MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules recognized by the NK cell's "DON'T KILL" RECEPTOR
*"STRESSED OUT" molecules recognized by the NK cell's 'DO KILL RECEPTOR'
Which characteristics define inflammation?
*Increase blood flow to inflamed tissues!
- Causes blood clotting
- Increase local temperature
- Coordinate tissue repair
- Increase sensitivity to pain
How do mast cells, macrophages, and neutrophils contribute to inflammation?
Inflammation is activated by:
- Histamine release from mast cells
- Cytokines release from activated macrophages and neutrophils
Which material are delivered to an inflamed area?
Why is prolonged inflammation dangerous?
It can cause tissue damage! It'll further cause asthma, chronic peptic ulcer/sinusitis, Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.
Why would a physician prescribe anti-histamines?
A drug or other compound that inhibits the physiological effects of histamine (allergies)
How is inflammation a tissue repair response?
It can coordinate tissue repair or acutely reduce pain cause by an injury
How does the complement system eliminate/neutralize foreign invaders and contribute to inflammation?
Eliminates/neutralizes foreign invaders by tagging bacteria for phagocytosis by phagocytes! Attaches pathogens to one northern to neutralize their infectious ability.
The complement system stimulates inflammation and alerts the immune system of an invasion
What is an antigen?
A foreign substance recognized by a lymphocyte
What is an epitope?
A specific part of the antigen where the antigen receptor on the lymphocyte surface binds to
Which part of an antigen receptor or antibody binds to an epitope?
An antigen receptor secreted by an activated B-cell
Where are lymphocytes (B-cells & t-cells) produced?
How and where are self-reactive lymphocytes detected & destroyed?
*Developing self-tolerant B-cells are screen for self reactivity in the bone marrow, and in the thymus for t-cells
*Self reactive B-cells are destroyed in the bone marrow, and in the thymus for T-cells
What occurs when self-reactive lymphocytes are not destroyed?
It causes auto-immunity! This can lead to numerous diseases such as anemia, narcolepsy, type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.
Which process enables our total population of lymphocytes to collectively express millions of unique antigen receptors?
Gene re-arrangement forms! The antigen-receptor genes in each B & T-cell are rearranged
How do cytotoxic T-cells recognize and destroy our virally-infected cells and cancerous cells?
THe T-cell receptors (antigen receptors) of cytotoxic t-cells recognize and bind to foreign (non-self) protein fragments that class I MHC molecules display on the surface of our cells
Which protein do activated B-cells called plasma cells secrete in response to the detection of antigens existing OUTSIDE of our cells?
The humoral (body fluid) immune response!
ANTIBODIES that bind to specific antigens circulation in blood, tissue fluid, and lymph fluid
How do antibodies neutralize antigens?
- Pathogens cannot recognize and bind to host cell receptors
- Toxins cannot bind to target molecules and inhibit target molecule activity
What stimulates B-cells to develop into plasma cells?
The B-cells is activated when its B-cell receptor (antigen receptor) binds to a specific antigen! It develops into a plasma cell that secretes a soluble version of the antigen receptor called an antibody
What is the function of memory B-cells and memory T-cells?
Respond rapidly to future invasions! The memory cells enable
Which medical practice stimulates the production of memory lymphocytes that recognize specific antigens?
Vaccination induce immunological memory!
How does the infection of helper T-cells by HIV disrupt regulation of the adaptive immune system?
The helper T-cells will not be able to regulate the activity of B-cells and cytotoxic t-cells
Which group of chemical regulators controls the immune system?
Lymphocytes are the basis of adaptive immunity
What some specific functions of these chemical regulators?
- B-cells secrete antibodies that tag foreign invaders for elimination
- Cytotoxic T-cells destroy our infected cells & cancerous cells
- Helper T-cells stimulate and regulate the activity of B-cells and Cytotoxic T-cells
Why does the nervous system permeate every part of the body?
1. Collect sensory unit
2. Deliver the proper instructions to muscles, glands, and vessels
How does the CSF support the central nervous system?
It surrounds the CNS and exchanges substances with blood in the capillaries to:
1. Obtain and deliver glucose, oxygen, and hormones
2. Remove waste products
3. Provide physical cushioning
4. Provide immunity
Which factors protect the CNS?
Protected by bone tissue, three meninges, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
What are some functions of the PNS?
Transmits sensory signals and also motor signals between the CNS and rest of the body
*Human's sense of sight, hearing, taste, smell, etc.
Which cell type provides us with the ability to dream, store memories, solve problems, and create?
The nerve cell *Extraordinary neuron
The average neuron in the CNS received signals from how many other neurons?
All types of perceived signals into an electrical signal
Which cells provide structural and metabolic support to neurons?
What is the function of each type of support cell?
1. Ependymal cells help form CSF and their cilia circulate CSF
2. Microglial cells neutralize pathogens and remove injured, dying cells
3. Oligodendrocytes & Schwann cells form myelin sheath
What are the four parts of the neuron? What is the function of each part?
Dendrites, soma ("cell body"), the axon, & synaptic terminals
What part of a pre-synaptic cell allows it to communicate with post-synaptic cell?
A chemical synapse that requires neurotransmitters or an electrical synapse that directly transmits the action potential
What is membrane potential?
the difference in the Elyria charge (voltage) that exists across the cell membrane of all ell types
Does the membrane potential provide the energy to support the action potential?
Yes! Used to induce and propagate the action potential
Why are toxins that inhibit the sodium potassium pump in neurons lethal?
Without active transport, membrane potential is not established nor maintained
What is the action potential?
A wave of positive electrical charge that travels through the axon to the synaptic terminals!
It is the 'language of the nervous system'
Where is the action potential generated?
Produced at the axon hillock (when a sufficient large graded potential reaches here)
How are our axons specialized to increase the rate of action potential propagation from the hillock to synaptic terminals?
The strength and frequency of the incoming signals perceived by the dendrites or cell body determine if an action potential is generated at the axon hillock
What regulates the opening and closing of the voltage-gated ion channels necessary for the action potential to occur?
Changes in membrane potential control the opening and closing of voltage-gated ion channels
How do the glia cells contribute to nervous system function?
Glia cells provide metabolic and structural support to neurons
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