61 terms

APCSP Unit 6 Vocab

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innovation
The process of imagining something that does not yet exist, but that has potential value, and making it real through the application of design, implementation, and production.
computing innovation
A new method or idea utilizing computing that has meaningful impact on society, economy, culture or environment.
evolutionary
Built incrementally upon what came before.
revolutionary
Built from original thinking and ideas.
social media
Applications and websites that allow users to share content and participate in social networking that may have otherwise had socioeconomic barriers.
socioeconomic
The differences among groups based on geographical, social and economic factors.
email
An electronic means of communicating via messages from one computer to another via a network.
symmetric network
Both sides equal. (Example: Facebook - friends must mutually agree to be friends)
asymmetric network
A one-sided or unequal relationship. (Example: Twitter - tweet to followers - one way communication)
public key encryption
A non-symmetric encryption method that uses a public key (made available publicly) and a private key (available to owner only).
certificate authorities
CA's issue digital certificates that validate ownership of encrypted keys used in secured communications and are based on a trust model.
trust model
Validation of one's identity necessary for an event or transaction to occur.
open source software
Software designed and accessible to the public which includes free access to source code with the ability to modify.
open platforms
Software based on open standards where there is no single ownership and is freely available through open license.
closed platforms
Proprietary software where the provider has control over the application and content and can restrict access
metadata
Descriptive data about an image, a web page, or other complex objects (data about data).
e-commerce
Electronic Commerce - buying and selling of goods and services via the Internet.
cloud computing
Storing, accessing and processing data using remote servers over a network rather than a local server or computer.
wireless
Broadcasting using radio signals and microwaves rather than hard-wiring.
network(s)
Connection of devices and networks to communicate using addresses and protocols.
client-server model
The client(s) are the end-user(s) and communicates with the server (a centralized computer) that services the clients.
crowd funding
Entrepreneurs who use online access to customers as a means of funding their project.
digital divide
The gap between those who have ready access to computers and the Internet, and those who do not.
internet
Connects devices and networks all over the world.
infrastructure
The physical and organizational structure used n networking including cables, fiber optics, access points, routers, etc.
protocols
A common set of rules that computers must abide by in order to connect with each other.
SMS
Short Message Services. Text messaging that allows the user to send up to 160 characters to another device. If message is longer it may truncate, concatenate and/or split up into several individual messages.
TCP/IP
Standard for packets and routing (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
Internet Protocol (IP)
The protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet.
SMTP
Email communication standard developed and overseen by the Internet Engineering Task Force (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
HTTP
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol) Developed by the Engineering Task Force, this protocol determines how data and messages are formatted, transmitted, and responded to via the Internet.
HTTPS
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) HTTP with a Secured Socket Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security (TLS) as a sublayer that encrypts and decrypts user data and requests for added security.
packet switching
Digital data is sent by breaking the data into blocks of bits called packets, which contain both the data being transmitted and control information for routing the data.
routing
The process of moving information (or packets) over a network via a device called a router.
redundant routing
having multiple routers to ensure reliability during cases of high usage or failure
fault tolerant
the property that enables a system to continue operating properly in the event of the failure of (or one or more faults within) some of its components.
IEEE
The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity.
IETF
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is the premier Internet standards body, developing open standards through open processes.
IP address
A unique numeric identification for each device that is connected to a computer network and uses Internet Protocol.
IPv4
Internet Protocol, Version 4 - A 32-bit Internet address consisting of four numbers each between 0 through 255, separated by periods (each number represents 8 bits).
IPv6
Internet Protocol, Version 6 - 128-bit Internet address consisting of eight 4-character hexadecimal numbers to handle routing of many more devices.
domain
A group of devices connected on a network using the same protocol to access and administer web pages.
Domain Name System (DNS)
The way that domain names are located and translated into Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.
peer-to-peer networks
Access to digital content via peer-to-peer networks raises legal and ethical concerns.
hierarchy
An arrangement of elements in a ranking of superiority. the Internet and systems are built from the top (root) down.
Application Program Interfaces (APIs)/ Libraries
A set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications which simplify complex programming tasks
bandwidth
A measure of bit rate of a system or data measured in bits) that can be sent in a fixed amount of time over a system.
latency
The time elapsed between the transmission and the receipt of a request in a system.
World Wide Web (WWW)
A network of online content formatted in html and accessed via HTTP (WWW)
Tim Berners-Lee
Created the set of fundamental tools and technologies that make up the World Wide Web.
hyperlinks
Clickable bits of text, images or other screen elements within an HTML document that a user can select to request another document or web location.
Net Neutrality
The Internet is built around the notion of free and open access to information with no blocking, no throttling or paid prioritization.
Open Access
Research and articles that are available via the internet and are free to access and utilize.
Internet of Things
The interconnection via the Internet of computing devices embedded in everyday objects, enabling them to send and receive data
sensor networks
Autonomous sensors that measure environmental conditions such as light, temperature and sound which facilitate new ways of interacting with the environment and with physical systems.
autonomous technology
Technology that can function without being told what to do - i.e. Robots.
models
a physical or virtual representation of an object
simulations
use models to test a hypothesis about a situation without the cost or danger of building and testing the phenomena in the real world.
dissemination
Widespread access to information facilitates the identification of problems, development of solutions and dissemination of results.
citizen science
the collection and analysis of data relating to the natural world by members of the general public, typically as part of a collaborative project with professional scientists.
scientific computing
Using citizen science to solve scientific problems using home computers in scientific research.