What is maturation?
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
In Piaget's theory, what are the stages of cognitive development?
1. sensory motor intelligence (0-2)
2. preoperational period (2-6)
3. concrete operational period (6-11)
4. formal operational period (11 & up)
What is assimilation? When does it occur?
we assimilate new experiences—we interpret them in terms of our
current understandings (schemas).
What is accommodation? When does it occur?
as we interact with the world, we also adjust, or accommodate, our schemas to incorporate information provided by new experiences. Thus, the child soon learns that the original dog schema is too
broad and accommodates by refining the category
How does the child acquire information about the world during the sensorimotor stage?
(from birth to about 2
years of age) during which infants know
the world mostly in terms of their sensory
impressions and motor activities.
What kind of cognitive abilities does the child acquire during the sensorimotor stage?
2. child develops basic schemas
3. begins to act intentionally
develops stranger anxiety
8. What do the findings which show that babies have a basic understanding of principles of physics and math mean for Piaget's theory?
Development is a continuous process.
Children express their mental abilities and operations at an earlier age.
Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition.
9. What is object permanence? What kinds of things can a child do after acquiring object permanence that s/he could not do before?
that things continue to exist even when
10. What do the findings that show that babies look longer at impossible figures than possible figures indicate about Piaget's view of infancy?
infants are smarter than Piaget appreciated and have some abilities for logic
11. What kind of cognitive abilities does the child acquire during the stage of preoperational development?
1. child can represent things in words and images
2. uses intuitive rather than logical reasoning
3. common misconceptions of the world:
a. inanimate objects are alive
b. everything is causal
c. fooled by appearances
d. can't tell real from imagined
12. What is conservation? What kinds of things can a child do after acquiring object permanence that s/he could not do before?
the principle (which
Piaget believed to be a part of concrete
operational reasoning) that properties
such as mass, volume, and number
remain the same despite changes in the
forms of objects.
13. What is egocentrism? What kinds of things can a child do after acquiring object permanence that s/he could not do before?
in Piaget's theory, the
preoperational child's difficulty taking
another's point of view.
14. What is theory of mind? What kinds of things can a child do after acquiring a theory of mind (losing egocentrism) that s/he could not do before
people's ideas about
their own and others' mental states—
about their feelings, perceptions, and
thoughts, and the behaviors these
1. What kind of cognitive abilities does the child acquire during the stage of concrete operational development?
Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive
development (from about 6 or 7 to 11
years of age) during which children gain
the mental operations that enable them
to think logically about concrete events.
17. What kind of cognitive abilities does the child acquire during the stage of formal operational development?
Abstract if then thinking
18. In Vygotsky's view of cognitive development, what causes the child's mind to grow?
1. believed children develop through interactions with members of their own culture.
2. zone of proximal development: the range of accomplishments that are beyond what a child could alone but can do with help and guidance.
3. depends on three fundamental skills:
a. joint attention: the ability to focus on what another person is focused on
b. social referencing: the ability to use another person's reactions as information about the world
3. imitation: the ability to do what another person does
19. What is attachment?
an emotional tie with
another person; shown in young
children by their seeking closeness to
the caregiver and showing distress on
20. What is imprinting?
the process by which certain
animals form attachments during a
critical period very early in life.
21. What is a critical period?
an optimal period
early in the life of an organism when
exposure to certain stimuli or experiences
produces normal development.
22. What is a secure attachment? What factors contribute to forming a secure attachment?
1. Securely Attached
a. Mom leaves: child distressed
b. Mom returns: child happy
a. moms are warm & responsive
b. sensitive to babies signals
c. enjoy contact
d. express emotion, encourage exploration
Long-term consequences of attachment:
1. Securely attached babies become secure children and do better on every dimension
Infant attachment predicts adult attachment
1. Retrospective attachment:
a. Secure: speak freely & with balance about their parents
b. Anxious Resistant: preoccupied with, and ambivalent about their parents
c. Anxious-Avoidant: don't talk specifically about their parents
Adult attachment patterns:
a. Secure: have secure and mutual relationships
b. Anxious resistant: very insecure and demanding
c. Anxious avoidant: trouble forming relationships
2. Insecure- Anxious Resistant:
2. Insecure- Anxious Resistant:
a. Mom leaves: child distressed
b. Mom returns: child distressed
a. moms try to provide comfort and affection
b. moms misread the child's signals
2. Insecure-Anxious Resistant babies become insecure kids with more behavioral problems
a. clinging and attention seeking
3. Insecure -Anxious Avoidant:
3. Insecure -Anxious Avoidant:
a. Mom leaves: child doesn't react
b. Mom returns: child doesn't react
a. moms are impatient and frustrated
c. see child's needs as interfering with their plans
3. Insecure- Anxious Avoidant babies
a. become insecure kids
b. more aggressive
c. detached from others
d.difficulty discussing their feelings
4. Disorganized Attachment:
4. Disorganized Attachment:
a. Mom leaves: child gives mixed reactions
b. Mom returns: child gives mixed reactions
a. moms are very abusive
23. How is temperament connected to attachment?
person's characteristic emotional reactivity and
intensity? Shortly after birth, some babies are noticeably difficult—irritable, intense, and unpredictable. Others are easy—cheerful, relaxed, and feeding and sleeping
1. Authoritarian (top-down) Parenting:
1. Authoritarian (top-down) Parenting:
a. parents strictly control the child
b. child has little input & cannot argue
c. parents offer few explanations
d. high demandingness, low responsiveness
. Permissive (bottom-up)Parenting
a. parents do not assert authority
b. few rules or demands upon child
c. children are in charge
d. low demandingness, high responsiveness
Authoritative (interactive) Parenting:
a. parent's exercise authority
b. kids are encouraged to provide input
c. parents offer explanations
d. high demandingness, high responsiveness
26. What are the consequences of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parents?
1. Authoritarian: withdrawn, dependent, vulnerable to stress, most trouble with substance abuse
2. Permissive: fearful, dependent, immature, lack self-control
3. Authoritative: independent, competent, socially responsive
a. true cross-culturally, including collectivist cultures
27. What are the three stages of moral development in Kohlberg's theory?
Preconventional Morality: the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor
Conventional Morality: the extent to which it conforms to social rulesmorality of an action is primarily determined by the
Postconventional Morality: the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values
: the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor
morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules
the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values
29. What are Erickson's stages of psychosocial development?
Infancy Toddlerhood Preschool Elementary School Adolescence Young Adulthood Middle Adulthood Late Adulthood
Infancy (birth through 18-months)
1. challenge: trust versus mistrust
2. based on whether or not a child's needs are reliably met
Toddlerhood (18 months through 3 years)
1. challenge: autonomy versus shame/doubt
2. based on whether the child has good experiences attempting do things independently
Preschool (3-6 years):
1. challenge: initiative versus guilt
2. based on whether the child can initiate original tasks and carry out personal plans
Elementary School (6 years to puberty):
1. challenge: competency (industry) versus inferiority
2. depends on whether the child can do things well or correctly, compared to others or a standard
Adolescence (puberty into 20s):
1. challenge: identity versus role confusion
2. depends on whether the person can develop a refined sense of self by experimenting with and then integrating different identities
Young Adulthood (20s through early 40s):
1. challenge: intimacy versus isolation
2. depends on developing the mature ability to love and form long term committed relationships
Middle Adulthood (40s through 60s):
1. challenge: generativity versus stagnation
2. depends on whether the person discover a sense of value by investing in the next generation or something larger than the self
Late Adulthood (60s and older):
1. challenge: integrity versus despair
2. depends on whether the person can reflect back on life with a sense of acceptance and satisfaction
1. What is the standard definition of personality in psychology?
enduring patterns of thought, feeling, and behavior
2. In terms of Freud's theory, what is the nature of consciousness, preconsciousness, and unconsciousness?
Beneath our awareness is the larger unconscious mind with its thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. Some of these thoughts we store temporarily in a preconscious area, from which we can retrieve them into conscious awareness.
3. In terms of Freud's theory of dreaming, what the manifest and latent meanings of a dream?
content of dreams (their manifest content) he believed to be a censored
expression of the dreamer's unconscious wishes (the dream's latent content).
In his dream analyses, Freud searched for patients' inner conflicts.
a reservoir of unconscious psychic
energy that, according to Freud, strives
to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive
drives. The id operates on the pleasure
principle, demanding immediate
the largely conscious,
"executive" part of personality that,
according to Freud, mediates among
the demands of the id, superego, and
reality. The ego operates on the reality
principle, satisfying the id's desires in
ways that will realistically bring pleasure
rather than pain.
the part of personality that,
according to Freud, represents internalized
ideals and provides standards
for judgment (the conscience) and for
8. In Freud's theory, what is a defense mechanism?
theory, the ego's protective
methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously
Retreating to a more infantile psychosexual
stage, where some psychic energy remains
A little boy reverts to the oral comfort of
thumb sucking in the car on the way to his
first day of school.
Switching unacceptable impulses into their
Repressing angry feelings, a person
displays exaggerated friendliness.
Disguising one's own threatening impulses by
attributing them to others.
"The thief thinks everyone else is a thief"
(an El Salvadoran saying).
self-justifying explanations in place
of the real, more threatening unconscious
reasons for one's actions.
A habitual drinker says she drinks with her
friends "just to be sociable."
sexual or aggressive impulses
toward a more acceptable or less threatening
object or person.
A little girl kicks the family dog after her
mother sends her to her room.
Refusing to believe or even perceive painful
A partner denies evidence of his loved
11. What is an inferiority complex?
An inferiority complex is a lack of self-worth, a doubt and uncertainty, and feeling of not measuring up to society's standards. It is often subconscious, and is thought to drive afflicted individuals to overcompensate, resulting either in spectacular achievement or extreme antisocial behavior
What is Jung's theory of the collective unconscious?
collective unconscious Carl Jung's
concept of a shared, inherited reservoir
of memory traces from our species'
What are the Rorschach and TAT (thematic apperception test) projective personality tests? What are they designed to measure? What is the primary problem with using them for diagnosis?
Unstructured tasks are designed to get past the person's own defenses
the person is given an unstructured task; the structure the person gives that task indicates unconscious issues
Critics argue that projective tests lack both reliability (consistency of results) and validity (predicting what it is supposed to).
14. What are the major criticisms of Freud's personality theory?
But both Freud's admirers and his critics agree that recent research contradicts many of his specific ideas. Today's developmental psychologists see our development as lifelong, not fixed in childhood.
What is the most serious problem with Freud's theory? It offers after - the - fact explanations
of any characteristic (of one person's smoking, another's fear of horses, another's
sexual orientation) yet fails to predict such behaviors and traits.
From Freud's time to
ours, sexual inhibition has diminished; psychological disorders have not.
15. What are self-determination and self-actualization? What role does each play in humanistic personality theory?
self - actualization according to
Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological
needs that arises after basic
physical and psychological needs are
met and self - esteem is achieved; the
motivation to fulfill one's potential.
16. In Carl Roger's humanistic theory, what is unconditional positive regard?
regard according to Rogers, an
attitude of total acceptance toward
17. In Carl Roger's humanistic theory, what is the self-concept? What are the ideal and actual selves?
self - concept all our thoughts and
feelings about ourselves, in answer to
the question, "Who am I?"
If our self - concept is positive, we tend to act and perceive the world
positively. If it is negative—if in our own eyes we fall far short of our ideal self—said Rogers,
we feel dissatisfied and unhappy. A worthwhile goal for therapists, parents, teachers, and
friends is therefore, he said, to help others know, accept, and be true to themselves.
Genuineness: When people are genuine, they are open with their own feelings, drop
their facades, and are transparent and self - disclosing.
Acceptance: When people are accepting, they offer unconditional positive regard,
an attitude of grace that values us even knowing our failings. It is a profound relief to
drop our pretenses, confess our worst feelings, and discover that we are still accepted.
In a good marriage, a close family, or an intimate friendship, we are free to be spontaneous
without fearing the loss of others' esteem.
Empathy: When people are empathic, they share and mirror other's feelings and
reflect their meanings. "Rarely do we listen with real understanding, true empathy,"
said Rogers. "Yet listening, of this very special kind, is one of the most potent forces
for change that I know."
20. What are the major criticisms of humanistic personality theories?
said the critics, its concepts are vague and subjective.
Critics also objected to the idea that, as Rogers put it, "The only question which matters
is, 'Am I living in a way which is deeply satisfying to me, and which truly expresses
A final accusation leveled against humanistic psychology is that it is naive, that it
fails to appreciate the reality of our human capacity for evil.
21. What is a personality trait?
a characteristic pattern of
behavior or a disposition to feel and
act, as assessed by self - report inventories
and peer reports.
22. What are the three superfactors in Eysenck's theory?
Introversion involves directing attention on inner experiences, while extraversion relates to focusing attention outward on other people and the environment. So, a person high in introversion might be quiet and reserved, while an individual high in extraversion might be sociable and outgoing.
This dimension of Eysenck's trait theory is related to moodiness versus even-temperedness. Neuroticism refers to an individual's tendency to become upset or emotional, while stability refers to the tendency to remain emotionally constant.
Later, after studying individuals suffering from mental illness, Eysenck added a personality dimension he called psychoticism to his trait theory. Individuals who are high on this trait tend to have difficulty dealing with reality and may be antisocial, hostile, non-empathetic and manipulative
23. What criticisms of trait theory is Eysenck trying to handle by connecting personality traits to biological systems?
Link between biological differences and their effects on personality traits.
24. What is an objective personality tests? Why is the MMPI an example of this?
1. assess personality along several scales, each of which measures a personality trait
2. hundreds of true/false questions, each of which assess a particular trait
3. score on each scale indicates the degree to which that trait characterizes the person
25. What is the Big-5 Personality theory? What are the 5 major traits?
26. Big Five: 5 major personality traits, each of which is expressed in a hierarchy of lower level traits
4. emotional stability (neuroticism)
5. openness to experience
27. How consistent is the expression of personality traits across situations?
Trait: a relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way
a. people behave consistently within, but
but not between, types of situations
28. What are the major criticisms of trait theory?
Although our personality traits may be both stable and potent, the consistency of our
specific behaviors from one situation to the next is another matter. As Walter Mischel (1968,
2009) has pointed out, people do not act with predictable consistency.
What is reciprocal determinism? What role does it play in social-cognitive (social-cognitive learning) theories?
Reciprocal determinism - the interacting
influences of behavior, internal
cognition, and environment.
30. What is learned helplessness? What causes it? What effects does it have?
and passive resignation an animal
or human learns when unable to avoid
repeated aversive events.
31. What is self-control? How does exerting self-control in one situation influence a person's ability to exercise self-control in another situation?
Self - control—the ability to control impulses and delay gratification—in turn predicts
good adjustment, better grades, and social success
32. What is an internal locus of control? What is an external locus of control?
What are the effects of having each of these kinds of loci of control?
a person's tendency to perceive the control of events as being internal to the self or external in the environment
a. internal locus of control: the person is largely responsible for the things that happen to him
b. external locus of control: things that happen to a person are largely determined by factors outside that person's control