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In ethnomethodology, the ideas we take for granted that underlie our behavior and that we violate at our risk are called ________.

background assumptions

The difference between role and status is that we occupy a status and play a role.


All master statuses are achieved statuses.


As societies grow larger, they divide work among members based on a characteristic such as interest or ability. This is referred to as ________.

division of labor

Ascribed status is involuntary and achieved status is voluntary.


A position in society that cuts across other statuses a person holds, such as being a high-ranking Army officer, a college president, or a handicapped Olympian, would be considered that person's ________.

master status

Background assumptions rarely contribute to our expectations.


Officer Friel has just pulled over a motorist exceeding the speed limit by 40 miles per hour. When he approached the vehicle, he recognizes the driver as his best friend's daughter. Officer Friel is aware that the young lady has had some money problems and the last thing she can afford is a $200 speeding ticket that will also raise her insurance rates. At this point, which of the following terms BEST describes the position facing Officer Friel?

role conflict

Roles are like fences - they allow a certain amount of freedom but that freedom does not go very far.


The organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs are referred to as ________.

social institutions

John desires the best things in life—a fast car, designer clothes, and membership in exclusive clubs. But rather than work his way through the system, he has discovered he can have all these things by selling crack cocaine in the inner city. How would Merton classify John?

an innovator

Human sexuality illustrates how a group's definitions of an act, and not the act itself, determines whether or not it is considered deviant.


Based on Merton's typologies, what do drug addicts, the homeless, nuns living in a convent, and monks living in a monastery have in common?


Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called ________.

degradation ceremonies

By employing techniques of neutralization, even the most dedicated deviants can view themselves as conformists.


The chances of receiving the death penalty are greatly affected by geography (where the murder took place), social class, and gender.


What is a group's formal and informal means of enforcing norms called?

social control

The theory of behavior in which people who associate with some groups learn an "excess of definitions" of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant is ________.

differential association theory

The theory of differential association suggests that people who associate with certain groups receive an "excess of definitions" about either deviance or conformity.


When Anthony worked as a prison counselor, he would often ask property offenders why they committed the crime. The overwhelming response was, "I had to feed my family." How would Sykes and Matza classify this response?

appeal to higher loyalties

Differential association theory was developed by sociologist ________.

Edwin Sutherland

Sociologists who believe we help to produce our own orientations to life by joining specific groups is MOST aligned with which sociological perspective?

symbolic interactionist

Based on strain theory, there are four deviant models of adaptation and one mode considered to be socially acceptable.


The percentage of former prisoners who are rearrested is known as ___________.


The text points out a number of high-profile examples of white-collar crime by large corporations for which violators never went to jail.


The ________ theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them.


Violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called ________.


Jeanann and her two children recently went on welfare. Research indicates that it is likely that Jeanann and her children will be in poverty ________.

for at least five or six years

Because of the objectivity and accuracy of the poverty line concept, most sociologists agree that the concept of poverty is accurately portrayed in America.


Changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder, which causes one class to increase while others decrease, is called ________ mobility.


In 1996, the U.S. welfare system was restructured. Supporters of this reform maintain that the new system rescues people from poverty and reduces welfare costs. What is the primary evidence they point out to support this?

the number of people on welfare ahas significantly decreased

Of the six social classes in America, the lower middle class has the highest percentage of members.


Ruth owns the Head 2 Toe Boutique where she employs 15 workers. According to Erik Wright's model of social class, Ruth would be classified as a(n) ________.

petty bourgeoisie

Since 1970, the richest 20 percent of U.S. families has grown richer, and the poorest 20 percent of U.S. families has grown poorer.


What region of the United States has the highest clustering of people in poverty?

the south

When used by sociologists, the term "wealth" refers to ________.

the value of a person's property minus that person's debt, a person's net worth

What is the relationship between births to single women and their level of education?

the greater the level of education, the fewer births to single women

Wealth and income are interchangeable terms, each meaning the same in reference to social class.


________ are the MOST likely segment of the population in the United States to experience poverty today.


Defining social class in America is an objective science because there are clear-cut, agreed-upon definitions of each class.


What are the three variables identified as defining social class?

wealth, power, prestige

There is a direct relationship between the amount of education an occupation requires and the prestige it holds in society.


What was the term C. Wright Mills used to refer to those who make the big decisions in American society?

the power elite

Which of the following individuals would have the narrowest field of "eligible" marriage partners based on background expectations?

Christian, the son of a CEO of a major corporation

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