Garbart Biology Vocab Chapter 17
Terms in this set (93)
A multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryote that obtains nutrients through ingestion.
The act of eating; the first main stage of food processing.
The embryonic stage that marks the end of cleavage during animal development; usually a hollow ball of cells in most animals.
The embryonic stage resulting from gastrulation in animal development. Most animals have three different layers of cells that make it up: the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm.
The phase of embryonic development that transforms the blastula into a gastrula. This process adds more cells to the embryo and sorts the cells into distinct cell layers.
The outermost of the three layers that make up a gastrula. It forms the skin and gives rise to the epidermal and nervous systems in an adult.
The innermost of the three layers that make up a gastrula. It forms the archentron and gives rise to the innermost linings of the digestive tract and other hollow organs in adults.
The middle layer of the three that make up a gastrula. It gives rise to muscles, bones, the dermis of the skin and most other organs in adults.
A free-living, sexually immature form in some animal life cycles that may differ from an adult in morphology, nutrition, and habitat. The plural is "larvae."
The transformation of a larva to an adult.
A dramatic increase in animal diversity that, according to the fossil record, happened 542 million years ago at the dawn of the Cambrian period.
An animal that lacks a backbone.
The arrangement of the body parts of an organism so that it is akin to the slices of a pie positioned around an imaginary central axis. Any "slice" passing longitudinally through such an organism's central axis divides it into mirrored halves.
The arrangement of the body parts of an organism so that it can be divided equally by a single cut passing longitudinally through it to produce mirror-images of the right and left sides. Organisms like this have a distinct anterior and posterior end, as well as a dorsal and ventral surface.
Pertaining to the front or head of an organism.
Pertaining to the rear or tail of an organism.
Pertaining to the back of an organism.
Pertaining to the underside or bottom of an organism.
A fluid-containing space between the digestive tract and the body wall.
A skeletal system composed of fluid held under pressure in a closed body compartment; the main skeleton of most cnidarians, flatworms, nematodes, and annelids.
A body cavity that is in direct contact with the wall of the digestive tract.
A body cavity that is completely lined with mesoderm.
An animal with a coelom that develops from solid masses of cells that arise between the digestive tube and the body wall of the embryo. Molluscs, annelids, and arthropods are examples of this kind of animal.
An animal with a coelom that forms from hollow outgrowths of the digestive tube of early embryos. Echinoderms and chordates are examples of this kind of animal.
A member of the clade of "true animals" (animals with true tissues). This includes all animals, except sponges.
A member of the clade of animals Bilateria, exhibiting bilateral symmetry.
An aquatic animal characterized by a highly porous body. It is the simplest kind of animal.
A flagellated feeding cell found in sponges. It is also called a "collar cell," due to having a collar-like ring that traps food particles around the base of the flagella.
An amoeba-like cell that moves by pseudopodia. They are found in most animals; depending on the species, these may digest an distribute food, dispose of wastes, form skeletal fibers, fight infections, and even change into other cell types.
An animal that extracts food particles suspended in surrounding water.
An organism anchored to its substrate.
An animal characterized by cnidocytes, radial symmetry, a gastrovascular cavity, a polyp or medusa body form. Animals categorized as such include hydras, jellyfish, sea anemones, coral, etc.
A specialized cell for which the phylum Cnidaria is named; consists of a capsule containing a fine, coiled thread, which, when discharged, functions in defense and capturing prey.
A digestive compartment with one opening (the mouth); may function in circulation, body support, waste disposal, and gas exchange as well as digestion.
A columnar, hydra-like body form found in cnidarians.
An umbrella-like body form found in cnidarians (jellyfish are a good example of this).
A bilateral member of the phylum Platyhelminthes that also lacks a body cavity.
Also called a "free-living flatworm," it is a nonparasitic flatworm possessing a gastrovascular cavity and a nervous system.
A parasitic flatworm with suckers and a tough protective covering.
A parasitic flatworm that is characterized by its lack of a digestive tract.
A roundworm characterized by a pseudocoelom; it has a cylindrical, wormlike body form, a tough cuticle, and a complete digestive tract. They are free-living decomposers and some are plant or animal parasites.
A tough, nonliving outer layer of the skin.
Complete digestive system
A digestive tube with two openings: the mouth and the anus.
A soft-bodied animal characterized by a muscular foot, a mantle and a mantle cavity, and a radula.
A structure used for locomotion and attachment in invertebrate animals.
One of the three main parts of a mollusc; it contains most of the internal organs.
An outgrowth of the body surface that drapes over the animal. It produces a shell and forms the mantle cavity.
A toothed, rasping organ used to scrape up and shred food.
The organ system that transports materials - nutrients, oxygen, hormones - TO the body cells and wastes like carbon dioxide FROM the body cells.
Types of molluscs
- GASTROPODS (snails and slugs)
- BIVALVES (clams, mussels, scallops, and oysters)
- CEPHALOPODS (squids and octopi)
A segmented worm.
The subdivision of the body along its length into a series of repeated parts (segments).
Types of annelids
Open circulatory system
A circulatory system in which blood is pumped through open-ended vessels and out among the body cells (the blood and interstitial fluid are one and the same).
Closed circulatory system
A circulatory system in which blood is confined to vessels and is kept separate from the interstitial fluid.
A member of the most diverse phylum in the animal kingdom; characterized by a chitinous exoskeleton, molting, jointed appendages, and a body formed of distinct groups of segments.
A hard, external skeleton that protects an animal and provides points of attachment for muscles.
In arthropods, the process of shedding an old exoskeleton and excreting a new, larger one.
Types of arthropods
- CHELICERATES (includes arachnids)
- MILLIPEDES and CENTIPEDES
- CRUSTACEANS (includes lobsters, crayfish, crabs, shrimps, and barnacles)
A terrestrial arthropod that has two pairs of short legs for each of its numerous body segments and that eats decaying matter.
A carnivorous terrestrial arthropod that has one pair of long legs for each of its numerous body segments, with the front pair modified as poison claws.
A small, air-breathing arthropod having the body divided into three parts (head, thorax, and abdomen), as well as having three pairs of legs and usually two pairs of wings. They are the most diverse of organisms.
The study of insects.
A type of development in certain insects, such as grasshoppers, in which the larvae resemble adults - but are smaller and have different body proportions. The animal goes through a series of molts, each time looking more like an adult, until it reaches full size.
The transformation of a larvae into an adult that looks very different from the larva and often functions very differently in its environment.
Orders of insects
There are about twenty-six orders of insects; systematists base them mostly on wing and mouthpart structure. The seven most common orders are listed below:
1) ORDER ORTHOPTERA - grasshoppers, crickets, katydids, and locusts.
2) ORDER ODONATA - dragonflies and damselflies.
3) ORDER HEMIPTERA - bedbugs, plant bugs, stinkbugs, and water striders.
4) ORDER COLEOPTERA - beetles.
5) ORDER LEPIDOPTERA - moths and butterflies.
6) ORDER DIPTERA - flies, gnats, and mosquitoes.
7) ORDER HYMENOPTERA - ants, bees, and wasps.
A member of a phylum of slow-moving or sessile marine animals characterized by a rough or spiny skin, a water vascular system, an endoskeleton, and radial symmetry in adults. Examples of these include sea stars, sea urchins, and sand dollars.
A hard skeleton located within the soft tissues of an animal; includes spicules of sponges, the hard plates of echinoderms, and the cartilage and bony skeletons of many invertebrates.
Water vascular system
A radially arranged system of water-filled canals that branch into extensions called tube feet. It provides movement and circulates water, facilitating gas exchange and waste disposal.
A member of the phylum Chordata, an animal that at some point during their development have a dorsal hollow nerve cord, a notochord, pharyngeal slits, and a post-anal tail. They include lancelets, tunicates, and vertebrates.
A flexible, cartilage-like, longitudinal rod located between the digestive tract and nerve chord in chordate animals; present only in embryos in many species.
A gill structure in the pharynx; found in chordate embryos and some adult chordates.
A tail posterior to the anus; found in chordate embryos and most adult chordates.
A chordate with a head.
A chordate animal with a backbone. This includes agnathans, cartilaginous fishes, bony fishes, amphibians, and reptiles (including birds and mammals).
A vertebrate with two pairs of limbs. This includes mammals, amphibians, birds, and other reptiles.
A member of a clade of tetrapods that have an amniotic egg containing specialized membranes that protect the embryo. This includes mammals, birds, and other reptiles.
A member of the class Chondrichthyes, a vertebrate with skeletons made mostly of cartilage (ex: sharks and rays).
Lateral line system
A row of sensory organs along each side of a fish's body. Sensitive to changes in water pressure, it enables a fish to detect minor vibrations in the water.
A bony fish having fins supported by thin, flexible skeletal rays.
A protective flap on each side of a fish's head that covers a chamber housing the gills. The plural is "opercula."
A gas-filled internal sac that helps bony fishes maintain buoyancy.
A bony fish with strong, muscular fins supported by bones. The coelacanth is the only living example.
A shelled egg in which an embryo develops within a fluid-filled amniotic sac and is nourished by yolk. Produced by reptiles, birds, and egg-laying mammals, it enables them to complete their life cycles on dry land.
A member of the clade of amniotes that includes snakes, lizards, turtles, crocodilians, and birds, along with a number of extinct groups such as the dinosaurs.
An animal that warms itself mainly by absorbing heat from its surroundings.
An animal that derives most of its own body heat from its own metabolism.
A group of reptiles with feathers and adaptations for flight.
A member of the class Mammalia; an amniote that possess mammary glands and hair.
An egg-laying mammal, such as the duck-billed platypus.
In most mammals, the organ that provides nutrients and oxygen to the embryo and helps dispose of its metabolic wastes; formed of the embryo's chorion and the mother's endometrial blood vessels.
A pouched mammal, such as a kangaroo, opossum, or koala. They give birth to embryonic offspring that complete development while housed in a pouch and attached to nipples on the mother's abdomen.
Also called a "placental mammal," it is a mammal whose young complete their embryonic development within the uterus, joined to their mother by the placenta.