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Compound Microscope 1-36 Stereoscopic Microscope 37-44 Body Symmetry, Planes, Region 45-62 Understanding Cell Theory 63-

ocular lense

lenses nearest the eye through which you look; 10x

objective lenses

lenses of different magnification that work in comjunction with ocular lenses to magnify the image; 40x


housing that keeps ocular and objective lenses in proper alignment


revolving housing that supports objective lenses


supports microscope body, stage, and adjustment knobs

coarse-focus adjustment

moves stage up or down to focus image

fine-focus adjustment

permits precise focusing


supports slides

stage clips

hold slide in steady, stationary position

stage adjustment knobs

move stage to center slide under objective lens


lens mounted beneath stage that foucses light beam on the specimen

iris diaphragm

mounted beneath stage nere condenser; regulates amount of light illuminating specimen

condenser adjustment

moves condenser lens up or down to focus light


source of light


supports microscope unitlight intensity adjustment dial

light intesity adjustment dial

rheostat (dimmer switch) that permits further adjustment of light intensity

power switch

turns microscope light on or off

working distance

between objective lens and the slide

What does the letter "e" look like through the ocular lenses?

upside down and backwards

As you move the slide toward the right of the stage, to which direction does the image of the "e" move when viewed through the microscope?

left (opposite)

As you move the slide away from you on the stage, to which direction does the image move?

towards you (opposite)

working distance

distance between the objective lens and the slide

oil immersion lens

100x lens

field of view

the circular field that you see when looking through a microscope

Under which objective lens is the field of view largest?


Under which objective lens is the field of view smallest?


If you didn't know what you wre looking at already, could you still determine if it was an "e" using high-power alone?

No, because the field of view would be to small.

Which lens (low-,medium-,or high-power) gives you the largest working distance?


depth of field

the thickness of an image that is in focus at any poin in time

wet mount

technique that allows you to observe movements and properties of living specimens that are impossible to view with prepared slides

Making a wet mount step 1

place specimen on clean glass slide

Making a wet mount step 2

place a drop of pond water culture in the center of a clean glass slide

Making a wet mount step 3

add a coverslip by placing one edge along the drop and gently lowering it onto slide

Making a wet mount step 4

press gently on the coverslip to remove any tiny air bubbles

Which level of magnification requires the most illumination for the best clarity and contrast?


Why is it imperative that you place a coverslip over the drop of fluid when making a wet mount?

so the fluid doesn't spread and leak of the slide

stereoscopic microscope

much larger working distance than compound micro.& are designend for viewing whole specimenst that are too large, too thick, or to opaque for study; ocular lens vies the specimen at a slightly different angle through the objective lenses, providing a three-dimensional view of the specimen, with a large depth of field; magnification 4x to 50x

reflected light

light from above

transmitted light

light from below; perferable for viewing internal structures on extremely thin or transparent specimens

What is the magnification range of the stereoscopic microscope?

4x to 50x

How does the image through a stereoscopic microscope move when the specimen is moved to the right or left? Up or down?

moving an object in agiven direction on the stage the image moves in same direction

For thin, transparent specimens, which method of illumination is genereally better-- transmitted or reflected light?

transparent light

Which method is better for larger thicker specimens? transmitted or reflected light

reflected light

Use lower/smaller or higher/larger to filll in the blanks...When compared to most compound microscopes, stereoscopic microscopes have a___ working distance,___depth of field,___ field of view, ___magnification, and___resolution.

larger, larger,larger, lower, lower

Basic Dissection Techniques

(1)practice safe hygiene--appropriate gloves, clothing, eyewear, don't put hands near mouth or eyes
(2) Read all instructions carefully before making any incisions--make sure you understand directions
(3) Use scissors, a teasing needle, & blunt dissecting probe whenever possible--scalpels more harm than good
(4) Don't stick your scalpel or teasing needles into roubber wax bottoms of disecting pan
(5) When instructed "expose" or "view" an organ remove all the membranous tissues that typpically cover these organs (fat, fascia, ect.) and separate--goal to expose the organ or structure as completely as possible without causing damage
(6) Working in pairs--one reads while other disects
(7) Look at illustrations frequently but primarily focus on specimen

Purpose of Disection

to reveal organs and structures in their natural, intact state for observation, without cutting or destroying them


lack a symmetry; irregular arrangement of body parts with no plane of symmetry to divide them into similar halves; ex. sponges

Radial Symmetry

arrangement of body parts around a central axis; any plane passing through the central halves (mirror images) by a single plane of symmetry; ex. cnidarians, some adult echinoderms, some fish

Bilateral Symmetry

division of body parts into similar halves (mirror images) by a single plane of symmetry; ex. flatworms, segmented worms, molluscs, arthropods, larval echindoerms, chordates

transverse plane

a section perependicular to the long axis of the body separating the animal into anterior and posterior

anterior (cranial)

head region

posterior (caudal)

tail region

sagittal planea

longitudinal section separating the animal into right and left sides;

median plane

runs down midline of animal


structures that are closer to the median plane


structures that are farther from the median plane

frontal plane

longitudial section dividing the animal into dorsal and ventral parts


denotes the side of the body nearer the backbone


refers to the side of the body closer to the belly


refers to a point of reference nearer the median plane or point of attachment on the body than another structure; ex when your arm is exteded, your elbow is proximal to your hand


refers to a point of reference farther from the body's median plane or point of attachment than another structure; ex. when your arm is exteded, your elbow is distal to your shoulder


refers to a point closer to the tip of the nose

cell theory

(1)all organisms are composed of cells
(2)cells are basic living units of organization and function in all organismis
(3)all cells arise only by division of previously existing cells


a specialized, usually spherical mass of protoplasm encased in a double membrane, and found in most living eukaryotic cells, directing their growth, metabolism, and reproduction, and functioning in the transmission of genic characters.


peripheral cytoplasm surrounds the nucleus; the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles.

plasma membrane

darker, surrounding cytoplasm, thin outer boundary of a cell that regulates the traffic of chemicals between the cell and its surroundings


darkly-stained clups within the nucleus;; the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus, consisting DNA, RNA, and various proteins, that forms chromosomes during cell division.


small spherical structure; a conspicuous, rounded body within the nucleus of a cell

The Four Principal Tyeps of Animal Tissues Based on Structure And Type


Epithelial tissues definition

cover external surfaces for protection or line the internal surfaces of body

Epithelial tissues

protect or line internal surfaces of body cavities and vessels; typically arranged into tightly packed layers of cells with little or no intercellular space; categorized based on the shapes of the cells and the number layers of cells that constitue the tissue;

Simple Epithelial tissues

consist of a single layer of cells and are classified based on their shapes; typically tww-deminsonal appereance in microscope; viewed from the side, often are difficult to distinguish; a thin band of cytoplasm with a small bulge wher the nucleus apperas is usually all that is identifiable

Simple Squamous Epithelium

A single layer of thin, flat cells. It is often found where diffusion or filtration take place (alveoli in lungs, kidneys). It also covers organs in the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities.

Cuboidal Epithelium and Columanr Epithelium

contain cells that are thicker and fuller and have three-deminsional apperances

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

represented by a single layer of boxed shaped cells; found in tubules of the mammalian kidney, & simple columnar cells are prevalent in the inner lining of the intestines in mammals

Simple Columnar Epithelium

contains a single layer of elongated, rectangular cells

Epithelial tissues typically exist in simple layers when absorption or diffusion across the tissues is necessary.


Stratified Epithelium

name from layered arrangment of cells in the tissues; many cases, theses tissues are composed of more than one type of cell ex.=severeal layers of squamous cells follwed by severeal layers of cuboidal cells

Epithelial tissues typically exist in stratified layers to serve as barriers against foreign substances and injury.

For example, the skin consists of an outer layer of stratified squamous epithelium to protect against impact, abrasion, radiation, desiccation, and infection

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Function: protects underlying tissues in areas subjects to abrasion *** Location: esophagus

Connective tissues

bind, support, store nutrients, and protect body parts and system

Connective tissue Categories

tendons, artilage, fat, blood and bone

All Connective tissues have a common structural feature called

contains cells that are widley-spaced by an extracellular matrix secreted by the living cells

Matrix Contains

crystals that make the bone hard; in blood, the extracellular matrix is plasma; in cartilage the extracellular matrix is composed of


most common connective tissue in vertebrates; composed widley-spaced cells within agleatinous glycoprotein matrix that provides firm but flexible support


hollow chambers****Location:emedded within the matrix


cartilage producing cells****Location:in the lacunae

Hyaline Cartilage

Location between bones, where it cushions the surfaces, of jouints; intercellular matrix composed primarily of chondrin with thin collagen fibers to provide support and suppleness

Elastic cartilage

contains fine collagen fibers and many ejlastic fibers that provide greater elasticity to this cartilage; more flexible than hyaline cartilage; *****Locations:ear nose and voice box of humans


one of the most specialized structural connective tissues; provides structural support; stores calcium that can be withdrawn by the body as blood calcium levels drop; produce red blood cells in the bone marrow


bone producing cells


concentric layers of bony connective tissue

Haversian Canal

tiny, narrow pathways


small spaces between the lamellae which contain osteocytes


timy, fingerlike projections through which nutrients is transported to the osteocytes

Adipose tissure

is a type of connective tissue that stores or sequesters food for the body in the form of fat droplets

Loose Connective tissue

found in all vertebrates; , A loosely organized, easily distorted connective tissue that contains several fiber types, a varied population of cells, and a viscous ground substance. Also the packing materials of the body. Fill spaces between organs, cushion and stabilize specialized cells and support epithelia. Surround and support blood vessels and nerves, store lipids, provide route for the diffustion of materials


a fibrous scleroprotein in bone and cartilage and tendon and other connective tissue


cells that secrete collagen and other fibrous proteins

Dense Connective Tissue

contains tightly packed collagen fibers, making it stronger than loose connetive tissue; classified based on the arrangement of collagen fibers into regular and irregular types

Regular Dense Connective Tissue

extremely long, densely packed, and are arranged in parallel, like the strands of a rope, forming s tructures that are extremely resistant to stress; ex. tendons, ligaments

Irregular Dense Connective tissue

lack a parallel arrangement; fibers have many different orientation patters, often arranged in bundles distributed in all directions thorughout the tissue, as in the dermis of the skin; produces tough outer coverings of organs such as kidneys, muscles, and nerves help hold them together


classifed as a type of connetive tissue; fluid nature


in which cells and the fluid matrix are suspended course through blood vessels transporting oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, electrolytes, hormones, metabolic watses and practically any other substance that cells use or produce


produced by liver; helps blood clot; plasma contains this


produced by liver; exerts an osmotic force needed for fluid balance; plasma contains this


produced by lymphocytes; needed for immunity; plasma contains this


not floating freely in the plasma of vertebrates, its tightly packaged within the red blood cells; floating freely in invertebrates;


free-floating respiratory pigment in plasma; found in annelids


free-floating respiratory pigment in plasma; found in molluscs and arthropods


mammalian red blood cells; appear as tiny, light pink, biconcave discs; most numerous type of cell in blood; 4-5 billion per mililiter of blood in adult humans; contain hemoglobin to reversibly bind and transport oxygen and carbon dioxide; characteristic biconcave shape provides a highter surface-to-volume ratio; increasing the diffusion rates of oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of the cells


white blood cells; genrerally larger than erythrocytes and contain distinct, purplish nuclei; play roles in defending the body against invading microorganisms and other foreign substances


most abundant white blood cell; twice the size of a red blood cell; ***Function: Bacterial Phagocytosis; the principal phagocytic cells in blood and are specialized for seeking out and ingesting foreign bacterialcells and dead host cells


least common; twice the size of red blood cells; ***Function: Inflammatory and Allergic Response; typically have unlobed nuclei; mor granular apperance when stained; instrumental in the inflammatory response of allergic reactions and help to prevent blood from inappropriately cloting within blood vessels


***Function: Allergic Response and Parasite Defense; play a role in allergic response; help defend against parasites; twice the size of red blood cells; nuclei usually possess two lobes


slightly larger than red blood cells; ***Function: Produce Antibodies For Immune Response; have spherical nuclei that almost completely fill the interior of the cell, leaving little visible cytoplasm; produce antibodies that recgonize and destroy foreign cells


the largest of the white blood cells; ***Function: Phagocytosis; spend a brief time (1-3 days) developing in the blood before exiting circulation and completing their developemnt in the tissue


monocytes greatly enalrge and become macrophages; giant scavenger cells that voraciously engulf bacteria, dead cells, and other debris


tiny, disk-shaped bodies in the blood, important in blood clot formation



Which type of connective tissues provides the most rigid support?


Which type of connective tissue stores lipids?

adipose tissue

Tendons and ligaments are composed of ______

regular dense connective tissue

Are nuclei present in mammalian red blood cells?

No, they lack a nuclei

WHich general type of blood cell is the most numerous? the least numerous?

most numerous = erythrocyte
least numerous = leukocyte

Name five categories of types of leukocyte


Which type of leukocyte is the most numerous? the least numerous?

most numerous = neutrophils
least numerous = basophils

What general strutural features do all connective tissues share in common?


Muscle Tissues

permit movement of the animal through its environment and/or movement of substances through the animal; characteristics ability to contract and thus create movement

Actin and Myosin Filaments

these occur in abundance and in uniform orientation in muscle cells; responsible for the contractility of muscle tissues

Types of Muscle Tissues


Smooth Muscle

simplest type of muscle tissue; lacking striations and generally confined to regions of the body under autonomic nervous control; long and spindle shaped fibers; contain nuclei; found in: bladder, uterus; stomach; blood vessels; contractions slow and rhythmic

Skeletal muscle

composed of long, unbranched myofibrils that are actually composites of many individual muscle cells, giveing these fibers their multinucleated apperance, a muscle that is connected at either or both ends to a bone and so move parts of the skeleton; characteristics: striated apperance


Micorsopic, fiber-like structures that occupy most cytoplasm in skeletal muscle cells: , skeletal muscle fibers


protein filaments inside a myofibril are organized into repeating functional units

Cardiac Muscle

strained muscle is found in the walls of the heart; not voluntary control; nuclei not located on the periphery of the cells; has steady rhythmic contractions; composed of bands of muscle fibers


groups of nerve cell bodies that coordinate incoming and outgoing nerve signals; control the rhythmic contractons; embedded in the heart

Intercalated Discs

Attachment sites between the transverse lines between cardiac muscle cells; rings that provide a strong connection between cardiac muscle cells, to prevent tears and leaks in the heart.

Nervous Tissue

initiate and transmit electrical nerve impulses to and from the body parts and store information in the form of biochemical compounds

Nervous Tissues Major Cells

(2) GILIA CELLS-supporting cells

Neurons are made up of_____ and are located

(2) AXON
located in the brain and spinal cord ONLY!!!

Cell Body

contains the nucleus and other organelles


long; transmits electrical impulses away from the cell body


short extensions; typically recieve electrical impules from neighboring neurons or sensory receptors and transmit them to the cell body

Glial Cells

assist in propagating nerve impulses; provided a nuritive role for neruons


proteinaceous substance that coats axons nerve cells seaths


cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

Asexual Reproduction

reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent

Cell Cycle

the cycle of growth and asexual reproduction of a cell, consisting of interphase (g1, s, g2 cycles) and mytotic phase (mytosis[division of the cell in prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase cycles] & cytokinesis[splitting of the cell])

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