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is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particle or electromagnetic waves
the time required for the amount of radioactive material to decrease by one half
Half life calculation
Scintillation counter: uses sodium iodide crystal that when hit with radiation gives off a flash of light ( scintillates) a counting device scans from the light produced.
Primordial- from before the creation of the Earth
Cosmogenic- formed as a result of cosmic ray interactions
Human produced- enhanced or formed due to human actions( minor amounts compared to natural)
Sources of Radioactivity
Designate and label areas for working with radioactive material
Label all containers with a radioactive material label and specify the isotope
No eating drinking or smoking in laboratory
No mouth pipeting of radioactive material
Preparation- Precautions while working with radioactivity
use pill trays and absorbent covering
use fume hoods for handling potentially volatile material
use glove box for handling large quantities of volatile material
Wear laboratory coat, disposable gloves and laboratory safety glasses
Use gloves appropriate for the chemicals to be handled
Conducting the Research- Precaustions
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