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Henri Becquerel,Marie Curie,Ernest Rutherford

Scientist who made contributions to Radioactivity

Father of Nuclear physics

Ernest Rutherford

Uranium spontaneously emits uranic rays

Henri Becquerel

Proton, neutron, nucleus, electron

structure of Atom


very charged, particle in the nucleus, Mass ~1AMU


neutrally, charged particle in nucleus. Mass~1AMU


the protons and neutrons are located in nucleus


very charged particle orbiting the nucleus

Mass number

Number Proton + neutron in the nucleus

Atomic number

Number proton in the nucleus

Alpha, beta, gamma

forms of radiation

is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particle or electromagnetic waves

Radioactive Decay

the time required for the amount of radioactive material to decrease by one half

Half life calculation

Radioactivity detected

Scintillation counter: uses sodium iodide crystal that when hit with radiation gives off a flash of light ( scintillates) a counting device scans from the light produced.

Primordial- from before the creation of the Earth
Cosmogenic- formed as a result of cosmic ray interactions
Human produced- enhanced or formed due to human actions( minor amounts compared to natural)

Sources of Radioactivity

Designate and label areas for working with radioactive material
Label all containers with a radioactive material label and specify the isotope
No eating drinking or smoking in laboratory
No mouth pipeting of radioactive material

Preparation- Precautions while working with radioactivity

use pill trays and absorbent covering
use fume hoods for handling potentially volatile material
use glove box for handling large quantities of volatile material
Wear laboratory coat, disposable gloves and laboratory safety glasses
Use gloves appropriate for the chemicals to be handled

Conducting the Research- Precaustions

Monitor and decontaminate surfaces
Dispose of radioactive waste in waste containers in accordance with Appendix G of the Radiation Safety Manual
Insure the container is labeled with radioactive material label and specify the radioisotope in the container.

Post research - Precaustions

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