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ancient biotechnology

Early history of biotechnology as related to food and shelter includes domestication, agriculture

Classical biotechnology

built on ancient biotechnology; fermentation promoted food production and medicine.

Anton Van Leeuwenhoek

used his microscopes to make discoveries in microbiology ie bacteria and protozoa...

Robert Hooke

discovery of cells

Edward Jenner

First vaccine and a model for modern day vaccines

Louis Pasteur


Charles Darwin

Natural selection or proposed survival of the fittest

Gregor Mendel

father of genetics, established two important laws of genetics.

Sutton and Bovery

proposed the chromosome theory of inheritance

Frederick Griffith

transforming principle

Beadle and Tatum

proposed one gene one enzyme

Avery, MacLeod, McCarthy

show that genetic material is DNA

Hershey and Chase

provided conclusive that DNA is genetic material

Franklin and Wilkins

studied structure of DNA by X ray diffraction and almost deciphered it

Messelson and Stahl

showed that DNA replication is semiconservative in nature

Genetic information of cell is stored in DNA

Genetic information of cell

Cell is the functional basic unit of life


a gene is a unit of heredity in living organism

A gene

is single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes


is a nucleic acid that contain s the genetic instruction A,T, G and C nucleotides


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