Biology EOC Review
Terms in this set (84)
A scientific hypothesis must be _____________________
Never. Theories are well supported explanations and laws are well supported descriptions. Theories do not become laws and laws do not become theories.
When does a theory become a law?
A ____________ is culmination of work from several scientists which provides strong evidence for an explanation of a range of phenomena. Examples: Cell_____________, Atomic ___________, and the ___________ of evolution
lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids
What are the four categories of macromolecules?
DNA and RNA are examples of which type of macromolecule?
Enzymes are examples of which type of macromolecule?
Fats, oils, and waxes are examples of which type of macromolecule?
Sugars and starches are examples of which type of macromolecule?
protein, or polypeptide
A chain of amino acids makes a _________________
A chain of nucleotides makes a ________________
An ___________________ speeds up the rate of a reaction by lowering the ____________________ energy
lipids make the cell membrane. (phospholipids specifically)
What is the main role of lipids within a cell?
When molecules pass through a cell membrane by diffusion, what kind of transport is this?
When molecules pass through a cell membrane via transport pumps that require ATP, what kind of transport is this?
What piece of scientific equipment was needed for the development of cell theory?
1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and organization in organisms.
3. Cells come from pre-existing cells.
What are the three tenets of cell theory?
Eukaryotes have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles (like mitochondria), while prokayotes do not.
How do eukaryotes differ from prokaryotes
Plant cells have cell walls, chloroplasts, and large vacuoles to hold water. Animal cells have no cell wall, no chloroplasts, and small vacuoles.
How do plant cells differ from animal cells?
unzipped, or separated
Before a DNA molecule is replicated, the two strands must be __________________ by the enzyme helicase
What enzyme builds a new strand of DNA by using the old strand as a template?
In DNA replication, each new molecule of DNA contains one "old" strand from the original molecule, and one new strand. Therefore, this process is called _________________________________________
DNA -> RNA -> Protein
Place the following molecules in the correct order according to central dogma of molecular biology:
RNA, Protein, DNA
The process of making RNA copies of DNA is called ________________________________
The process of converting an mRNA molecule into a protein is called ______________________
Three base pairs of RNA is called a ________________, and it codes for one amino acid
No, there is some redundancy in the genetic code
Does every DNA mutation cause a change in phenotype? (ie. a change in the protein?)
In DNA, adenine always binds with ___________________. In RNA adenine always binds with ___________________.
DNA is _____________ stranded and RNA is ___________ stranded
Mitosis is used to replace body cells, or for ______________ reproduction, while meiosis is used in ______________ reproduction.
Mitosis makes _______ daughter cells with a ____________ number of chromosomes
Meiosis makes _______ daughter cells with a ____________ number of chromosomes
Gametes, egg and sperm, are created through the process of _______________
Which process, mitosis or meiosis, creates new combinations of genetic material through crossing over?
There are three alleles for human blood type: A, B, and O. This is an example of ____________________________
The A and B alleles for blood type are dominant to the O allele. But if someone has both an A and a B allele for blood type, both alleles are expressed. This is an example of ___________________________
If a red flower is crossed with a white flower to produce a pink flower, this is an example of __________________________
1 BB: 2 Bb: 1 bb
What will be the genotypic ratio of a cross between two heterozygous parents? (Bb)
At one point in the history of life on earth, a simple prokaryote was engulfed by a larger prokaryote and the two continued to live symbiotically as the first eukaryote. This scientific theory is known as _____________________________
One piece of evidence for evolution comes from examining the skeletons of marine mammals. Whales and dolphins have pelvic bones and hind limb bones that are non-functional and serve no apparent purpose. These are an example of _________________ structures
homologous, common ancestry
If you look at the forelimbs of distantly related vertebrate species, you will find the same bones in a similar arrangement. These forelimbs are an example of _______________ structures because they show _________________ _________________________
Distantly related vertebrates go through similar stages of embryological development, this is evidence for evolution because it indicates that these species shared a _____________ ____________________
1. overproduction (more individuals are born than the environment can support)
2. variation (individuals inherit different traits)
3. competition (there is competition for food, mates, and territory)
4. selection (individuals with traits that are better suited to the environment will survive longer and have more offspring, causing those traits to increase in the population)
What are the steps in natural selection?
What is the distinguishing trait of hominids?
smaller jaw sizes allow for larger brain sizes. Humans have smaller jaws and larger brains than other primates.
How is jaw size related to brain size in primates?
domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
List the taxa in order from most general to most specific.
If an organism is a multicellular autotroph with cell walls made of cellulose, what kingdom does it belong to?
An organism is a multicellular heterotroph with cell walls made of chitin, what kingdom does it belong to?
An organism is a unicellular autotroph that lives in extremely harsh environments, what kingdom does it belong to?
In plants, _________________ tissue is the tissue responsible for transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant.
water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight
What are the reactants for photosynthesis?
oxygen and glucose
What are the products of photosynthesis?
Inside the chloroplasts, in the thylakoid membranes.
Where in the plant cell does photosynthesis take place?
What pigment is necessary for photosynthesis?
The products of photosynthesis are the reactants of cellular respiration and vice versa.
What is the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
In the mitochondria
Where in eukaryotic cells does cellular respiration take place?
The region of the plant where cells are actively dividing is called the __________________
The female region of the flower that is made up of stigma, style, and ovary is called the ___________
The male part of the flower, made up of the filament and anther, is called the _____________________
_______________ respiration requires oxygen and ___________________ respiration does not.
Which is more efficient? Aerobic or anaerobic respiration?
Anaerobic produces ______________ acid as a byproduct. This causes muscle soreness after anaerobic exercise
Photosynthesis takes place in the _________________ while cellular respiration takes place in the _____________________
As you move up through the trophic levels of an energy pyramid, there is __________ energy available at higher levels than at lower ones.
Biomass (increases/decreases) as you move up an energy pyramid?
__________________ are always at the base of the energy pyramid because they bring energy into the food chain.
Organisms that eat producers are known as herbivores or ________________ consumers
Rainforests act as carbon ____________, because they remove carbon from the atmosphere
They both convert nitrogen in the atmosphere into nitrogen in the soil that can be used by plants.
What do lightening and nitrogen-fixing bacteria have in common?
transpiration, it requires plants
What part of the water cycle involves biotic factors?
What type of succession happens after a forest fire?
What type of succession happens on rock with no soil layer?
As you go deeper in the water, less light can penetrate. Therefore, photosynthetic organisms can only leave near the surface of the water where there is plenty of light.
How does depth affect the distribution of life in an aquatic ecosystem?
When the birth rate is higher than the death rate in a population, the population size is _____________
What type of growth will occur in a population that has unlimited resources and no predators?
Sustainability, or sustainable development
What term is used to describe economic growth and development that meets the needs of the growing human population while having a minimal impact on the earth's ecosystems?
biodiversity strengthens populations and ecosystems against disease, drought, and other natural disasters. Also, there may be cures for incurable diseases hidden in the genes of some undiscovered species.
Why is biodiversity important?
What lobe of the brain is blue?
what lobe of the brain is yellow?
what lobe of the brain is pink?
what lobe of the brain is green?
it increases blood pressure
Atherosclerosis is the buildup of plaque on the inside of arteries. How does this condition effect blood pressure?
A ______________________ is when a patient is intentionally exposed to a dead or weakened form of a pathogen in order to activate the body's own immune response, and provide immunity.
What is another name for a fertilized egg?
What property of water makes it the universal solvent?