259 terms

Rad. - Unit 8

STUDY
PLAY
Radiographic positions
relationship of patient to x-ray table/image receptor. Lists specific body area in contact with device
Radiographic projections
relationship of patient to x-ray tube. Lists specific body areas in path of x-ray beam in order of closest to furthest from beam. Described as if body is in anatomical position
supine position
reclining with back down
prone position
reclining with front down
recumbent
reclining in any position
oblique
upright or recumbent, but rotated
RT LAT
right lateral
LT LAT
left lateral
OBL
oblique
RPO
right posterior oblique
LPO
left posterior oblique
RAO
right anterior oblique
LAO
left anterior oblique
AP (projection)
anterior to posterior
PA (projection)
posterior to anterior
Axial (projection)
AP or PA, but with radiation angled along axis of part
CXR
chest x-ray
KUB
image of kidneys, ureters, and bladder
HSG
hysterosalpingogram
VCUG
voiding cystourethragram
ABD
abdomen
BE
barium enema
ACBE
air contrast barium enema
UGI
upper gastro intestinal exam
SBS
small bowel series
IVU
intravenous urogram
IVP
intravenous pyelogram
CR (1)
central ray
CR (2)
computed radiography
IR
image receptor
SID
source to image distance
OID
object to image distance
SOD
source to object distance
FS
focal spot
DR
direct radiography
DDR
direct digital radiography
kVp
kilovoltage peak
mAs
milli-ampere seconds
STAT
immediately
LMP
last menstrual period
OP
out patient
IP
in patient
ER/ED
emergency room/emergency department
ortho
orthopedic clinic/patient
R/O
rule out
C/O
complains of
H/O
history of
HX
history
Pm
as needed
NPO
nothing by mouth
AIDS
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
ASHD
arteriosclerotic heart disease
CA
cancer
CHF
congestive heart failure
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CVA
cerebrovascular accident
FUO
fever of undetermined/unknown origin
HH
hiatal hernia
MI
myocardial infarction
PUD
peptic ulcer disease
SOA/SOB
shortness of air/breath
TB
tuberculosis
TIA
transient ischemic attack
URI
upper respiratory infection
UTI
urinary tract infection
internal
towards the midline
external
away from the midline
ipsilateral
same side
contralateral
opposite side
abduction
to take away
adduction
to bring closer
flexion
to reduce the angle between the parts
extension
to place the parts at 180 degrees to each other
Dorsiflexion
to draw the foot up
plantar flexion
to point the foot down
eversion
angle the foot with the big toe side down
inversion
angle the foot with the big toe side up
medial rotation
to turn towards the mid-line
lateral rotation
to turn away from the mid-line
supination
turn the hand palm up
pronation
turn the hand palm down
protraction
to protrude forward
retraction
to pull back
elevation
to lift
depression
to press down
BID
twice daily
Bx
biopsy
Dx
diagnosis
Tx
treatment
Rx
treatment or prescription
Sx
symptoms
UA
urinalysis
CBC
complete blood count
NG
nasogastric
OTC
over the counter
PE
physical examination
QID
four times daily
TID
three times daily
noc
night
TKO
to keep open (refers to IV line)
I/O
intake and output
IV
intravenous
IM
intramuscular
ab-
away from
a-, an-
without
ante-
front
anti-
against
bi-
two
co-
together
contra-
against
decub-
side
dys-
difficult
ect-
outside
en-
in
hemi-
half
hydro-
water
hyper-
above or greater
hypo-
below or lesser
infero-
below
megal-
large
pan-
all
poly-
many
post-
back, after
pre-
before
retro-
backward
super-
above
tri-
three
vent-
front
angio
vessel
cephal
brain
cerebro
head
chiro
hand
enter
intestine
hepat
liver
hyster
uterus
lith
stone
chole
bile
cysto
bladder
encephal
brain
nephr
kidney
phren
diaphragm
pneum
air
pyel
pelvis
radi
ray
viscer
organ
-algia
pain
-centesis
puncture
-dia
through
-ectomy
incision
-emia
blood
-ectasis
expansion
-genic
origin
-iasis
condition
-megaly
enlargement
-myel
spinal cord
-osis
condition
-pathy
disease
-plasty
surgical correction
-pulm
lung
-pyel
pelvis
-rhaphy
suture
-scopy
inspection
-tomy
incision
ARC
AIDS-related complex
BP
blood pressure
c-
with
CAD
coronary artery disease
cc
cubic centimeter
CCU
coronary care unit
CNS
central nervous system
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CS
central supply
C-section
cesarean section
CSF
cerebrospinal fluid
CT
computed tomography
DOA
dead on arrival
ECG/EKG
electrocardiogram
EEG
electroencephalogram
EMG
electromyogram
ENT
ear, nose, and throat
ER/ED
emergency room/emergency department
GI
gastrointestinal
HHS
Unites States Department of Health and Human Services
HIPAA
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus
ICCU
intensive coronary care unit
ICU
intensive care unit
lat
lateral
mets
metastases
mm
millimeter
MRI, MR
magnetic resonance imaging
NG
nasogastric
OB
obstetrics
OR
operating room
PAR
postanestheia recovery
peds
pediatrics
PID
pelvic inflammatory disease
p/o
postoperative
post-OP
after surgery
pre-OP
before surgery
prn
as needed
PT (1)
physical therapy
PT (2)
prothrombin time
pt
patient
req
requisition
ROM
range of motion
s-
without
SIDS
sudden infant death syndrome
S/P
status post
TPN
total parenteral nutrition
TPR
temperature, pulse, and respiration
VD
venereal disease
ACERT
Association of Collegiate Educators in Radiologic Technology
ACR
American College of Radiology
AERS
Association of Educators in Radiological Sciences
AHA
American Hospital Association
AHRA
American Healthcare Radiology Administrators
ADC
analog-to-digital converter. Converts image information into numerical data
anode
the positive electrode in the x-ray tube
automatic collimation (positive beam limitation)
ability of the radiographic equipment to automatically collimate the x-ray beam to the same size as the image receptor resting in the Bucky tray. Prevents unnecessary exposure to the parts of the patient outside the area covered by the image receptor
blur
effect of motion on the radiographic image
Bucky (short for Potter-Bucky diaphragm)
a moving grid used to remove scatter radiation from the remnant beam, which can cause fog on image receptor
cassette
a light-proof container holding the image receptor. Either an imaging plate for CR or x-ray film and intensifying screens
cathode
negative electrode in x-ray tube
collimator
box-like structure attached to x-ray tube containing lead shutters that limits the x-ray beam to a specific area of the body
Computed Radiography (CR)
digital radiographic imaging using a cassette containing an imaging plate
contrast
differences in densities on a processed image; allows detail to be seen
CRT
cathode ray tube (video monitor)
density
opaqueness or degree of blackening on an area of the processed image
DICOM
Digital imaging and communications in medicine. A standard protocol used for blending PACS and various imaging modalities
Direct Digital Radiography (DR)
uses fixed detectors that communicate directly with a computer
distortion
misrepresentation of the size or shape of the object as recorded in the radiographic image
exposure indicator
s-number or exposure index that describes the status of the exposure and diagnostic value of the digital image
film
refers to film before exposure to radiation
focal spot (focal track)
area of the anode in the x-ray tube from which x-rays emanate
grid
device that is placed between the patient and the image receptor that absorbs scatter radiation that is exiting the body
HIS
Hospital information system
histogram
graphic display of the distribution of pixel values
image receptor
general term applied to any device or medium that captures the remnant beam
imaging plate (IP)
device made of photostimulable phosphor that absorbs the photon energies exiting the patient (located inside a CR cassette)
intensifying screens
mounted in cassette singly or in pairs. Glow with visible light when struck by radiation and expose film contained in cassette
kVP (explanation)
peak kilovoltage applied to x-ray tube. Determines wavelength of x-ray beam, its ability to penetrate the body, and overall contrast of radiographic image
lead aprons
coverings worn by radiographers who are in a radiographic/fluoroscopic room with x-ray beam turned on; lead absorbs most of scatter radiation that strikes apron
mAs (explanation)
milliampere-seconds; product of milliamperage and time; the current that passes through x-ray tube that's converted to x-rays when strikes anode. Determines the # of x-rays produced and consequently the overall darkness of the resulting radiograph; radiation exposure to patient is directly proportional to the ____________ used
matrix
digital image comprised of rows and columns of data
object-to-image receptor distance (OID)
distance from the part being examined to device detecting radiation
PACS
picture archiving and communications system
pixel
picture element; smallest component of matrix
postprocessing image enhancement
digital manipulation of a radiographic image after its acquisition by computer
processor
machine that automatically develops x-ray film
radiograph
x-ray image as viewed after it has been exposed and processed
radiographic view
term used to explain how image receptor sees the body image; opposite of radiographic projection
recorded detail
sharpness of the structural lines as recorded on the radiograph
remnant beam (exit radiation)
x-ray beam that exits the patient; comprised of image-forming rays and scatter radiation
RIS
radiology information system
source-to-image receptor distance (SID)
distance from source of radiation to device that's detecting radiation
source-to-object distance (SOD)
distance from source of radiation to part being examined
voxel
volume element; section of tissue represented by a pixel
window level
midpoint of densities in a digital image; used to adjust digital